IN 2014 some 3,500 people died or were reported missing in the Mediterranean Sea.

http://www.unhcr.org/55e06a5b6.html

Crossings of Mediterranean Sea exceed 300,000, including 200,000 to Greece

 

Crossings of Mediterranean Sea exceed 300,000, including 200,000 to Greece

News Stories, 28 August 2015

© UNHCR/A. McConnell
A group of Afghans recently arrive on the island of Lesbos after travelling in an inflatable raft from Turkey to Greece. More than 300,000 refugees and migrants have used the dangerous sea route across the Mediterranean so far this year.

GENEVA, Aug 28 (UNHCR) More than 300,000 refugees and migrants have used the dangerous sea route across the Mediterranean so far this year with almost 200,000 of them landing in Greece and a further 110,000 in Italy.

The UN refugee agency, revealing the latest statistics in Geneva on Friday, said this represents a large increase from last year, when around 219,000 people crossed the Mediterranean during the whole of 2014.

“At the same time, some 2,500 refugees and migrants are estimated to have died or gone missing this year, trying to reach Europe. This death toll does not include yesterday’s tragedy off Libya where numbers of deaths are still unconfirmed,” UNHCR spokesperson Melissa Fleming told a press briefing in Geneva.

Last year some 3,500 people died or were reported missing in the Mediterranean Sea.

Fleming said that despite the concerted efforts of the joint European search and rescue operation under FRONTEX, which has saved tens of thousands of lives this year, the Mediterranean Sea continues to be the “deadliest route for refugees and migrants”.

She added that in the last few days, even more people had lost their lives in three separate incidents.

The Libyan Coast Guard carried two rescue operations on Thursday morning, seven miles off the port town of Zwara. Two boats carrying an approximate total of 500 refugees and migrants were intercepted and survivors taken to shore in Libya.

“An estimated 200 people are still missing and feared dead. A still undetermined number of bodies were recovered and taken to shore. The Libyan Red Crescent has been helping with the collection of the bodies,” Fleming added.

On Wednesday (26 August), rescuers coming to the aid of another boat off the Libyan coast found 51 people dead from suffocation in the hold.

“According to survivors, smugglers were charging people money for allowing them to come out of the hold in order to breathe,” Fleming detailed.

She quoted one survivor, Abdel, 25, from Sudan as saying: “We didn’t want to go down there but they beat us with sticks to force us. We had no air so we were trying to get back up through the hatch and to breathe through the cracks in the ceiling. But the other passengers were scared the boat would capsize so they pushed us back down and beat us too. Some were stamping on our hands.”

Fleming said that last week (15 August), the bodies of 49 persons were found in the hold of another boat in a similar but separate incident. They are thought to have died after inhaling poisonous fumes.

Also that week, a rubber dinghy carrying some 145 refugees and migrants ran into trouble when the person steering it made a manoeuvre that caused the dinghy to tilt dangerously to one side.

“Some people fell into the sea and two men jumped into the water to rescue them. Panic ensued and people began to jostle and shove and, as a result, three women were crushed to death on the dinghy,” Fleming said.

Of those who fell in the water, 18 are still missing and believed to have drowned. The survivors were rescued and taken to Lampedusa, including a two-month old baby of one of the women who died. Most of the survivors are reported to be in a critical condition, suffering from shock, cuts and bruises.

Many of the people arriving by sea in southern Europe, particularly in Greece, come from countries affected by violence and conflict, such as Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan; they are in need of international protection and they are often physically exhausted and psychologically traumatized.

UNHCR appeals to all governments involved to provide comprehensive responses and act with humanity and in accordance with their international obligations.

All European countries and the EU must act together in response to the growing emergency and demonstrate responsibility and solidarity.

By Melissa Fleming, Geneva

INDIAN GOVERNMENT SHOULD TAKE LESSONS FROM NUCLEAR DISASTERS AND THEIR WORST CASE SCENARIOS .INDIAN GOVERNMENT SHOULD COMPLETE ITS SOLAR PROJECT IN LADAKH.

J&K govt to harness 111 GW solar power in Ladakh

https://kavidhakrishnamoorthi559.wordpress.com/2016/01/16/india-should-soon-complete-its-solar-project-in-ladakh-and-should-do-more-farming/

http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/JK-govt-to-harness-111-GW-solar-power-in-Ladakh/articleshow/46385901.cms

 

 

"The Ladakh region has a potential of 111 GW of solar power and the governor NN Vohra, has called for urgently removing all existing impediments in effectively harnessing the solar power potential in the State," a Raj Bhawan spokesman said.
.. Read More
JAMMU: The Ladakh region of Jammu & Kashmir also known as cold desert has a vast po
MU: The Ladakh region of Jammu & Kashmir also known as cold desert has a vast potential to produce 111 giga watts (GWS) of solar power and the state government is planning to harness it, a senior official said here on Thursday.“The Ladakh region has a potential of 111 GW of solar power and the governor NN Vohra, has called for urgently removing all existing impediments in effectively harnessing the solar power potential in the State,” a Raj Bhawan spokesman said.

He said that the Governor has directed the Chief Secretary Iabal Khanday to hold an urgent meeting to review, with all the stakeholders, and resolve all existing hurdles

“The State of J&K, with its huge tracts of barren lands in Ladakh, has the potential to produce 111 GW of solar power. Government of India and J&K government have signed an MOU for the development of two mega solar power projects in the Ladakh region of the State (2500 MW in Kargil and 5000 MW in Leh),” he said.

He said that most of the energy generated in these solar parks would be given to the Northern Grid through the presently under construction Leh- Srinagar transmission line.

He said that the state government has already issued solar and hydel power policies for creating an attractive environment for the evacuation, purchase, wheeling and banking of electrical energy generated from Renewable Energy.

He said the state government has devised an incentive package for private power producers including permission to private players to set up solar, hydel, wind and thermal projects of any size in the state,

“The benefits extended would also include, tax holiday for power generation and distribution companies, easy availability of cheap loans, reduction of custom duty for the import of equipments, a favourable debt equity ratio and making competitive bidding mandatory” he said.

http://pib.nic.in/newsite/erelease.aspx?relid=134497

 

Solar Power Capacity Crosses Milestone of 5,000 MW in India

On the auspicious occasion of Makar Sankranti/Pongal, the installed capacity of solar power in India crossed the milestone of 5,000 MW yesterday.  The cumulative installed capacity has reached to 5,130 MW with installed capacity of 1385 MW in current FY.  The state-wise break-up of 5,130 MW is given in the Table below.  The state of Rajasthan stands 1st in the country with 1264 MW, followed by Gujarat (1024MW), Madhya Pradesh (679 MW), Tamil Nadu (419 MW), Maharashtra (379 MW) and Andhra Pradesh (357 MW).

The Government has set the ambitious target of generating 100 GW of solar power by the year 2021-22 under the National Solar Mission. It is envisaged to generate 60 GW ground mounted grid-connected solar power and 40 GW through roof-top grid interactive solar power to fulfill the 100 GW of solar power. The Ministry has also fixed year-wise targets to monitor the solar power generation in the country. The target for the current year is 2,000 MW and next year target is 12,000 MW.  The Ministry is putting all efforts through various schemes of Central Government and State Governments to achieve the targets.  It has been planned that around 18,000 MW tender should be out by 31st March, 2016.

To achieve above stated objective, the Ministry of New & Renewable Energy has initiated several projects like Scheme for Development of Solar Parks and Ultra Mega Solar Power Projects; Scheme for Development of Solar PV Power Plants on Canal Banks/ Canal Tops; Scheme for setting up 300 MW of Grid connected Solar PV Power Projects by Defense Establishments under Ministry of Defense and Para Military Forces with viability Gap Funding; Scheme of setting up 1000 MW of Grid- Connected Solar PV Power Projects by CPSUs with Viability Gap Funding ; Scheme for Setting up of 15000 MW of Grid connected to achieve this target. Solar PV Power Projects by NTPC/NVVN; Setting up of 2000 MW Grid connected solar power with Viability Gap Funding through Solar Energy Corporation of India (SECI). This apart, an ambitious scheme has been launched by the Ministry for roof-top solar installation. Various state governments are coming up with solar power projects under their own policies.

INDIAN GOVERNMENT SHOULD ALSO WARN OTHER STATES WHY SOLAR ENERGY IS THE BEST OPTION FOR FUTURE.

AND THEY SHOULD ALSO MAKE THE STATES REALISE WHAT WILL HAPPEN IN THE FUTURE BY GIVING THEM PRIOR WARNINGS. EVERY STATE HAS A OPTION HOW THEY ARE GOING TO PLAN THEIR FUTURE AND AFTER FEW YEARS THEY SHOULD NOT COMPLAIN OR REGRET FOR WHAT THEY HAVE BUILT.

INDIAN GOVERNMENT SHOULD ALSO WARN THERE IS LOT OF SCOPE OF TERRORISM AND IF THERE IS A BLAST IN ATOMIC REACTORS THEN ONE CAN IMAGINE HOW MANY PEOPLE WILL LOSE THEIR LIVES.

 

Japan’s Fukushima nuclear plant leaks radioactive water

  • 20 February 2014
  • From the sectionAsia
Highly contaminated water leaked from a large storage tank is seen at the H6 area of the contaminated water storage tanks, Fukushima nuclear plant, 20 February 2014
Image captionThe leak is thought to have occurred after a storage tank overflowed

Around 100 tonnes of highly radioactive water have leaked from a storage tank at Japan’s Fukushima nuclear plant, operator Tokyo Electric (Tepco) says.

The toxic water may have overflowed after a valve was left open by mistake, Tepco said.

However the water was unlikely to have reached the ocean, the operator added.

The plant, which was damaged by an earthquake and tsunami in 2011, has faced multiple problems including leaks and power cuts since the disaster.

The latest leak is the most serious since August, when the plant leaked 300 tonnes of water, prompting Japan’s nuclear agency to raise the incident’s alert level.

‘Contaminated earth’

The water from Wednesday’s leak was radioactive, with a reading of 230 million becquerels per litre of radioactive isotopes, Tepco spokesman Masayuki Ono told reporters.

A becquerel is a unit used to measure radioactivity. WHO guidance advises against drinking water with radioactivity levels higher than 10 becquerels per litre.

Tepco says the radioactive water overflowed from a storage tank on Wednesday, but the leak was not discovered for several hours, the BBC’s Rupert Wingfield-Hayes in Tokyo reports.

The operator says the leak occurred when contaminated water was accidentally pumped into a large storage tank that was already full, our correspondent adds.

“We apologise for worrying the public with such a leak,” Mr Ono said. “Water is unlikely to have reached the ocean as there is no drainage in that tank area.”

“We are now in the process of recovering the leaked water and the earth it has contaminated,” he added.

On 11 March 2011, an earthquake and tsunami crippled the plant. Waves knocked out cooling systems for the reactors, leading to meltdowns at three of them.

Water is being pumped in to cool the reactors. However, this creates large amounts of contaminated water that must be stored securely.

The Fukushima nuclear power plant suffered a number of setbacks last year, including worker errors and a series of toxic water leaks that have lead to concerns contaminated water is mixing with groundwater that is flowing into the sea.

INDIA SHOULD FOLLOW  THE METHODS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY USED IN HOLLAND FOR BETTER FUTURE.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renewable_energy_in_the_Netherlands

Renewable energy in the Netherlands

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Despite the historic usage of wind power to drain water and grind grain, the Netherlands lags behind most EU countries in the production of energy from renewable sources. The flat and often sub-sea level landscape limits hydropower resources and the country does not lie in a region of high geothermal potential. The leading renewable power sources are biomass, wind, solar and geothermal. In 2010, the Netherlands produced only 3.7%, up from only 1% in 1990.[1]

Three hydropower plants provide almost all of the Netherlands’ hydropower. In 2010, the Netherlands had 1973 wind turbines including 98 in two offshore windfarms. The turbines had a total nameplate capacity of 2237 MW. Flevoland was the leading province for wind energy with Groningen second in capacity and production. The Netherlands had 88 MW of solar electricity and 98 MW of manure digesters in 2010.[1]

In 2009 the Netherlands used 3,9% wind power of electricity (278/ 7,073) [2] The wind capacity installed at end 2010 will, in a normal wind year, produce 4.1% of electricity, when the equivalent value for Germany is 9.4% and Portugal 14%.[3]

In the Netherlands, household consumers can choose to buy renewable electricity. For 2008, the amount of renewable energy used by household users is increasing. Halfway through 2010 it was 44%, up from 38% in 2008 and 41% in 2009.[4] A large part of the renewable electricity sold in the Netherlands comes from Norway, a country which generates almost all its electricity with hydropower plants.

INDIA SHOULD SOON COMPLETE ITS SOLAR PROJECT IN LADAKH AND SHOULD DO MORE FARMING

IN  LADAKH MORE HOTELS ,HOMES  http://www.himalayan-homestays.com/ladakpages/default.html CAN BE BUILT  BASED ON SOLAR ENERGY   AND INDIAN GOVERNMENT SHOULD MAKE ARRANGEMENTS FOR GROWING MORE PLANTS AND VEGETABLES IN JUTE BAGS  . NOW BASED CLIMATE MOUNTAINS  IF FARMING BASED ON JUTE BAGS IS DONE IT WILL MAKE  MORE PEOPLE TO LIVE THERE  .THE GOVERNMENT SHOULD FIND A PLACE WHICH IS NEAR  SO  THEY CAN MAKE ORGANIC FERTILIZER   THERE ARE MANY WAYS ORGANIC FERTILIZER CAN BE MADE ON A LARGE SCALE  AND PLANTS CAN BE GROWN IN JUTE BAGS IN THESE MOUNTAINS  MORE PEOPLE CAN LIVE THERE .

 https://www.google.co.in/?gfe_rd=cr&ei=uqiaVtiQIIGM8QfIr4LYBQ#tbm=vid&q=making+organic+fertilizer

ONE CAN GROW PLANTS IN JUTE BAGS ONE NEEDS ORGANIC FERTILIZER ON A LARGE SCALE AND THEY HAVE TO TRANSPORT THESE JUTE BAGS WITH SOIL AND ORGANIC FERTILIZER TO GROW PLANTS IN LADAKH . JAPAN GROWS MORE VEGETABLES IN FACTORIES . NOW YOU HAVE LAND WHY CANT THE INDIAN GOVT  TRY TO GROW VEGETABLES IN JUTE BAGS IN LADAKH. IT CAN BE A FACTORY LIKE IN JAPAN GROWING VEGETABLES IN JUTE BAGS. THIS CAN BE DONE ON A LARGE SCALE TO GROW MORE VEGETABLES IN LADAKH . THINGS CAN BE MADE POSSIBLE FOR SETTING A RESTAURANT IN LADAKH LIKE IN DELHI WHERE YOU CAN GET MORE VEGETABLES . SO MANY THINGS ARE POSSIBLE . INDIAN GOVT HAS TO CHANGE MANY THINGS.

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1190392/Is-future-food-Japanese-plant-factories-churn-immaculate-vegetables-24-hours-day.html

 

ozu

Hhttps://www.google.co.in/?gfe_rd=cr&ei=q7CaVu7UOqSM8Qec8orQAg#q=japan+grows+food+in+factoriesow to Plant Edibles in Burlap Sacks

A versatile material in the garden, burlap is used to wrap tree and shrub roots, mulch growing beds, protect newly planted seeds. 

I love adding strips of it to my worm bin. Red wigglers will devour the jute cloth along with the food scraps as they weave in and out of the fibers.

I’m not sewing a stitch or covering plastic containers. My approach is more organic, free-form and natural looking. Once you view these ideas, you may dream up your own ways to use burlap that suits your lifestyle and surroundings.

Burlap is made from the jute plant. Jute comes from the outer skin of the jute plant grown in places that get lots of rain, parts of India for example. The jute plant only takes 4-5 months to reach maturity so it’s a smart choice for a renewable, sustainable material.  It’s second to cotton in terms of production volume of a natural fiber worldwide – like cotton, it can be used in many industries and applications.

To use burlap sacks, place the bags directly on the ground, as a rectangle, horizontal tube or upright with rolled edges. If you have a patio, some kind of barrier between the bag and wood, stone or cement would work well to prevent staining. Vertical gardening is a wonderful concept although gravity is working a bit against us here with soil inside and so keeping the bags from falling over requires some support – you could use wire fencing or do what I do and group bags together so they can support each other. This especially works well when growing potatoes in burlap bags. I have another video that provides you the details and some fun on growing spuds in sacks – when you get a chance, maybe take a look at that one too.

There are several reasons why plants grow well in burlap. Aeration: the weave of the fibers make it easy for air to circulate unlike plastic or clay. The burlap retains moisture but at the same time let’s water flow through much better than many containers. I like burlap because it’s lightweight. I’ve made planting beds out of retaining wall, wood and rocks and as long as my planting areas don’t look junky, I’m fine with the less permanent look. I like to experiment and switch things up every once in a while anyway so this approach fits my personality as well.

I’ve tested a lot of plants out using burlap sacks and here are my favorites:

Strawberries, they love to be mounded and aeration is important. Our strawberries look really healthy when grown in sacks and produce a good crop.

Herbs look so natural in burlap and it makes me feel like I’ve created an herb garden that meshes well with its surroundings. Burlap provides a neutral color that lets the herbs take center stage.

Lettuce works well because the soil depth doesn’t need to be very deep for lettuce, arugula and spinach. I do start the seeds inside or in small containers first, or buy starts and transplant them into areas of the bag by cutting slits spaced apart.

  1. Arugula
  2. Basil
  3. Borage
  4. Cabbage
  5. Chamomile
  6. Chives
  7. Cilantro
  8. Cucumbers
  9. Lettuce
  10. Oregano
  11. Peppers
  12. Parsley
  13. Peas
  14. Potatoes
  15. Rosemary
  16. Spinach
  17. Swiss Chard
  18. Tarragon
  19. Thyme
  20. Tomatoes

 

 

J&K govt to harness 111 GW solar power in Ladakh

http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/JK-govt-to-harness-111-GW-solar-power-in-Ladakh/articleshow/46385901.cms

 

 

"The Ladakh region has a potential of 111 GW of solar power and the governor NN Vohra, has called for urgently removing all existing impediments in effectively harnessing the solar power potential in the State," a Raj Bhawan spokesman said.
.. Read More
JAMMU: The Ladakh region of Jammu & Kashmir also known as cold desert has a vast po
MU: The Ladakh region of Jammu & Kashmir also known as cold desert has a vast potential to produce 111 giga watts (GWS) of solar power and the state government is planning to harness it, a senior official said here on Thursday.

“The Ladakh region has a potential of 111 GW of solar power and the governor NN Vohra, has called for urgently removing all existing impediments in effectively harnessing the solar power potential in the State,” a Raj Bhawan spokesman said.

He said that the Governor has directed the Chief Secretary Iabal Khanday to hold an urgent meeting to review, with all the stakeholders, and resolve all existing hurdles

“The State of J&K, with its huge tracts of barren lands in Ladakh, has the potential to produce 111 GW of solar power. Government of India and J&K government have signed an MOU for the development of two mega solar power projects in the Ladakh region of the State (2500 MW in Kargil and 5000 MW in Leh),” he said.

He said that most of the energy generated in these solar parks would be given to the Northern Grid through the presently under construction Leh- Srinagar transmission line.

He said that the state government has already issued solar and hydel power policies for creating an attractive environment for the evacuation, purchase, wheeling and banking of electrical energy generated from Renewable Energy.

He said the state government has devised an incentive package for private power producers including permission to private players to set up solar, hydel, wind and thermal projects of any size in the state,

“The benefits extended would also include, tax holiday for power generation and distribution companies, easy availability of cheap loans, reduction of custom duty for the import of equipments, a favourable debt equity ratio and making competitive bidding mandatory” he said.

Entrepreneurs! Here’s your chance to tell the Government of India what should be included in Start-up India, Stand-up India

http://yourstory.com/2015/12/startup-india-stand-up-india-survey/

“A structure will be presented before you. This programme will be connected to the country’s IITs, IIMs, central universities and NITs. Wherever there are youth, they will be linked through ‘live connectivity.”

http://yourstory.com/2016/01/startup-india-google-pitches/

EVERY STATE IN INDIA SHOULD MAKE A PRACTICE OF STORING SEEDS  THIS WILL  IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF SEEDS .

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Svalbard_Global_Seed_Vault

The Svalbard Global Seed Vault (Norwegian: Svalbard globale frøhvelv) is a secure seed bank on the Norwegian island of Spitsbergen near Longyearbyen in the remote Arctic Svalbard archipelago, about 1,300 kilometres (810 mi) from the North Pole.[4] Conservationist Cary Fowler, in association with the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR),[5] started the vault to preserve a wide variety of plant seeds that are duplicate samples, or “spare” copies, of seeds held in gene banks worldwide. The seed vault is an attempt to insure against the loss of seeds in other genebanks during large-scale regional or global crises. The seed vault is managed under terms spelled out in a tripartite agreement between the Norwegian government, the Global Crop Diversity Trust (GCDT) and the Nordic Genetic Resource Center (NordGen).[6]

The Norwegian government entirely funded the vault’s approximately NOK 45 million (US$9 million) construction.[7] Storing seeds in the vault is free to end users, with Norway and the Global Crop Diversity Trust paying for operational costs. Primary funding for the Trust comes from such organisations as the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and from various governments worldwide.[8]

http://www.theguardian.com/science/2015/may/20/the-doomsday-vault-seeds-save-post-apocalyptic-world

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_districts_of_West_Bengal

The Panchayati Raj has a three-tier structure in the state. The atomic unit is called a Gram Panchayat, which is thePanchayat organization for a collection of villages.[10] The block-level organizations are called Panchayat Samiti,[11] and the district-level organizations are named Zilla Parishad.[12]

http://bengalglobalsummit.com/food_process.php

 

 

  • The State has six Agro-Ciimatic zones, producing a wide variety of crops, fruits and vegetables
  • Highest producer of vegetables in the country
  • Leader in producing pineapples
  • Occupies second or third position consistently in fruits production
  • Bengal is home to exotic varieties of Flowers, Orchids and Cacti
  • Stress upon crop diversification, preservation of produce and opening up of marketing avenues
  • Kisan Mandis being set up in all 341 blocks of the State
  • Cold storage and food processing facilities have been planned th rough PPP mode

 

NOW BY IMPROVING FEW THINGS MAKES A LOT OF DIFFERENCE  IN THE PRODUCTION PROCESS

WEST BENGAL  LIKE ANY OTHER STATE IN INDIA IS BASED ON GRAM PANCHAYAT  PANCHAYAT SAMITI  ZILLA PANCHAYAT .

NOW WEST BENGAL NEEDS A EDUCATION SYSTEM LIKE GURU -G  FOR FARMERS WHERE  THROUGH VARIOUS INDIAN RECIPES (OR FLOWERS OR ANY OTHER AGRICULTURE PRODUCT)

https://www.google.co.in/?gfe_rd=cr&ei=MFaZVq_2L4eM8Qe2joLoDg#q=indian+vegetarian+recipes  THEY CAN MAKE FARMERS TO DIVERSIFY THEIR CROPS  . SO PEOPLE UNDER GRAM PANCHAYAT  PANCHAYAT SAMITI ZILLA PANCHAYAT   IF THEIR SKILLS ARE IMPROVED  THEN WEST BENGAL CAN ALSO BECOME ONE OF THE HUBS OF HORTICULTURE LIKE HOLLAND .(http://hollandfoodpartner.com/horticulture/)

Guru-G

Founded in May 2013, Guru-G converts existing content into adaptive teaching packs. These packs provide in-class guidance to teachers on different ways in which they can teach a topic. The guidance adapts to the teacher’s past behaviour, student moods and the practices that have resulted in best learning outcomes for their students.

 

HOW JAPAN IS MAKING USE OF WATER FOR GENERATING POWER WEST BENGAL SHOULD INCREASE ITS SOLAR ENERGY

Solar Panels Floating on Water Will Power Japan’s Homes

Solar Panels Floating on Water Will Power Japan’s Homes
More solar power plants are being built on water, but is this such a good idea?
By Bryan Lufkin, for National Geographic
PUBLISHED FRI JAN 16 12:07:00 EST 2015

Picture of a similar floating solar plant

Floating solar arrays take advantage of open water where land space is constrained.
PHOTOGRAPH COURTESY OF KYOCERA CORPORATION
Nowadays, bodies of water aren’t necessarily something to build around—they’re something to build on. They sport not just landfills and man-made beaches but also, in a nascent global trend, massive solar power plants.

Clean energy companies are turning to lakes, wetlands, ponds, and canals as building grounds for sunlight-slurping photovoltaic panels. So far, floating solar structures have been announced in, among other countries, the United Kingdom, Australia, India, and Italy.

The biggest floating plant, in terms of output, will soon be placed atop the reservoir of Japan’s Yamakura Dam in Chiba prefecture, just east of Tokyo. When completed in March 2016, it will cover 180,000 square meters, hold 50,000 photovoltaic solar panels, and power nearly 5,000 households. It will also offset nearly 8,000 tons of carbon dioxide emissions annually. (Since the EPA estimates a typical car releases 4.7 tons of CO2 annually, that’s about 1,700 cars’ worth of emissions.)

The Yamakura Dam project is a collaboration by Kyocera (a Kyoto-headquartered electronics manufacturer), Ciel et Terre (a French company that designs, finances, and operates photovoltaic installations), and Century Tokyo Leasing Corporation.

So, why build solar panels on water instead of just building them on land? Placing the panels on a lake or reservoir frees up surrounding land for agricultural use, conservation, or other development. With these benefits, though, come challenges. (See related story: “How Green Are Those Solar Panels, Really?”)

Solar Enters New Territory

“Overall, this is a very interesting idea. If successful, it will bring a huge impact,” says Yang Yang, a professor of engineering at the University of California, Los Angeles who specializes in photovoltaic solar panels. “However, I do have concerns of its safety against storms and other natural disasters, not to mention corrosion.”

Unlike a solar installation on the ground or mounted on a rooftop, floating solar energy plants present relatively new difficulties. For one thing, everything needs to be waterproofed, including the panels and wiring. Plus, a giant, artificial contraption can’t just be dropped into a local water supply without certain precautions, such as adherence to regulations on water quality—a relevant concern, particularly if the structure starts to weather away.

“That is one reason we chose Ciel et Terre’s floating platforms, which are 100 percent recyclable and made of high-density polyethylene that can withstand ultraviolet rays and corrosion,” says Ichiro Ikeda, general manager of Kyocera’s solar energy marketing division.

Another obstacle? Japan’s omnipresent threat of natural disasters. In addition to typhoons, the country is a global hot spot for earthquakes, landslides, and tidal waves.

Picture of a similar floating solar plant
The planned floating solar array for Japan would sit atop the Yamakura Dam, east of Tokyo.
PHOTOGRAPH COURTESY OF KYOCERA
To make sure the platforms could withstand the whims of Mother Nature, Ciel et Terre’s research and development team brought in the big guns: a wind tunnel at Onera, the French aerospace lab. The company’s patented Hydrelio system—those polyethylene “frames” that cradle the solar panels—was subjected to very high wind conditions that matched hurricane speeds. The system resisted winds of up to 118 miles per hour.

Why Japan Could Be the Perfect Spot

Given its weather, why build floating solar panels in the storm-filled, Ring of Fire-hugging Land of the Rising Sun? The reason: Many nations could benefit from floating solar power. And Japan is their poster child.

The largely mountainous archipelago of Japan suffers from a lack of usable land, meaning there’s less room for anything to be built, let alone a large-scale solar plant. However, the nation is rich in reservoirs, since it has a sprawling rice industry to irrigate, so more solar energy companies in Japan are favoring liquid over land for construction sites. Suddenly, inaccessible terrain becomes accessible.

Kyocera’s Ikeda says available land in Japan is especially hard to come by these days, as the number of ground-based solar plants in the country has skyrocketed in the past few years. (See related story: “Japan Solar Energy Soars, But Grid Needs to Catch Up.”)

But, he added, “the country has many reservoirs for agricultural and flood-control purposes. There is great potential in carrying out solar power generation on these water surfaces.”

In Japan’s case, Ciel et Terre says that the region’s frequent seismic fits aren’t cause for concern, either. In fact, they illustrate another benefit that floating solar panels have over their terrestrial counterparts, the company says.

“Earthquakes have no impacts on the floating photovoltaic system, which has no foundation and an adequate anchoring system that ensures its stability,” says Eva Pauly, international business manager at Ciel et Terre. “That’s a big advantage in a country like Japan.”

Solar’s Potential Ecological Impact

Floating solar panel manufacturers hope their creations replace more controversial energy sources.

“Japan needs new, independent, renewable energy sources after the Fukushima disaster,” says Pauly. “The country needs more independent sources of electricity after shutting down the nuclear power and relying heavily on imported liquid gas.”

This up-and-coming aquatic alternative impacts organisms living in the water, though. The structure stymies sunlight penetration, slowly making the water cooler and darker. This can halt algae growth, for example, which Ciel et Terre project manager Lise Mesnager says “could be either positive or negative.” If there’s too much algae in the water, the shadow-casting floating panels might be beneficial; if the water harbors endangered species, they could harm them.

“It is really important for the operator to have a good idea of what kind of species can be found in the water body,” Mesnager says.

Since companies must follow local environmental rules, these solar plants are usually in the center of the water, away from banks rich with flora and fauna. Plus, companies might prefer building in man-made reservoirs instead of natural ones, as the chances of harming the area’s biodiversity are smaller.
Could the Future Include Salt Water?

More than three-quarters of our planet is ocean, which might present alternative energy companies a blank canvas on which to dot more buoyant energy farms. But moving floating panels to the open sea is still in the future. Kyocera’s Ikeda says it would bring up a whole new realm of issues, from waves to changing water levels, which could lead to damage and disrupted operations.

Ciel et Terre is experimenting with salt water-friendly systems in Thailand, but ocean-based plants might be impractical, as offshore installations are costly, and it’s more logical to produce electricity closer to where it’ll be used.

For now, companies are aiming to build floating energy sources that conserve limited space, are cheaper than solar panels on terra firma, and are, above all, efficient. Ciel et Terre says that since its frames keep Kyocera’s solar panels cool, the floating plant could generate up to 20 percent more energy than a typical ground system does.

The Yamakura Dam project might be the world’s biggest floating solar plant, but it wasn’t the first-and it almost certainly won’t be the last.

The story is part of a special series that explores energy issues. For more, visit The Great Energy Challenge.
Comment on This Story

 

http://www.oceanfuels.com/energy-from-the-ocean

Energy From The Ocean

Ian Rosenblatt

CEO OceanFuels

At the Global Energy Conference,
Barcelona 2012

I am not a technologist, nor scientist, but an entrepreneur with a passion for imagination and innovation, and desire to find solutions to the ever growing problems we are encountering in the world today.

The ‘food versus fuels’ debate is familiar to most of us. It is widely recognized and reported that the demand for alternative fuels needs to be balanced by the problems associated with the supply of raw material feedstock.

Corn and sugar cane are two of the major feed-stocks for the bio-ethanol industry, but not only does large-scale production of corn and sugar damage the environment by the use of harmful pesticides, it uses another valuable resources: enormous quantities of water. For instance, it is estimated that the production of corn in the USA uses 135 billion US gallons of water a day.

Investment continues in other second generation biofuel resources such as Jatropha, Myscanthus Grasses, and Camelina, so called new energy crops. The argument being that they are grown on dry, arid lands that cannot sustain agricultural crop production for human consumption.

But with world population rising at an alarming rate, 7 billion forecast this year, 9bn by 2050 (as an aside a recent report indicated that the world will reach saturation point when we hit 15bn people) it’s inconceivable that further development in water recyling technology will not find a solution to turn these poor quality soils into land suitable for agricultural production.

In fact It was reported recently that a commercial airline is testing new jet fuel using Camelina as the raw material feedstock. Given that this only yields around 1,500 litres per hectare, and a Jumbo Jet uses a 49,000 litres for a one way trip across the Atlantic, how sustainable is that?

So I fail to comprehend the argument for using land resources in the long term as an alternative to meeting our fuel demands

Away from land based crops, we then have to consider the millions if not billions of dollars invested in an attempt to develop biofuels from algae grown in photo bioreactors. None of which to date have achieved any degree of commercial success

So the challenge is this:

  1. To find a feed-stock which is abundant and carbohydrate-rich. This crop needs to be sustainable, no-agricultural inputs (pesticides, fertiliser, land, water), and not be part of the human or animal food chain.
  2. To develop a biomass-to-ethanol conversion process that dramatically improves yields and has valuable by products that can reduce the cost of production per litre.

The answer is simple, use the Oceans,

They cover 70% of the World, they grow algae naturally. Indeed most of the oil we are getting out of the ground today comes from algae that lived millions of years ago.

Algae is the best source of oil we know.

Using algae from the Oceans is nothing new. Its been going on for generations its used in cosmetics, food, and many other related industries.

The question is how to ‘farm’ algae in the Ocean in a sustainable and economical way?

Ocean-Fuel have developed and patented an ocean-based cultivation system that can efficiently, cost effectively, and sustainably grow specific seaweeds varieties for conversion to ethanol, and deliver revenues per hectare far surpassing anything currently grown using land resources.Ocean Fuels cultivation system allows multiple seaweed species to be grown on specially designed growth platforms in the ocean.This platform enables the various species to achieve optimal growth at different times of the year therefore we have multiple harvests

As an alternative to land-based biomass, seaweed-based biomass is a sustainable crop which contributes to the environment in a positive way by sustaining or creating marine habitats, by increasing biodiversity, and by absorbing and removing nitrates and phosphates found in inshore waters.

One hectare of Ocean using the grid system will yield nearly 700 tons of wet seaweed, which dried gives us around 200 tons. On a like for like basis the average yield per hectare for corn is around 12 tonnes yielding 3,500 litres of ethanol versus 35,000 litres from macroalgae!

However the most important factor that must be taken into consideration is the value of the by products.

Around half of the 200 tons will be converted to biofuel, but the rest have a high value as fish oil, pigment, and minerals, with the jewel in the crown being pure protein which has a sales value around 10 times more than can be achieved from the sale of the biofuel.This gives us a financial model that allows the biofuels to be sold at competitive prices without the need for direct subsidies from the tax payer, and most importantly gives us the ability to make a competitive return on our investment.

So to summarise, we can be pretty certain that the world demand for energy will increase and that a significant portion of that demand for growth will be for energy transportation.

The question then, is can the planet support this?

What is our biomass potential and how do we optimize this?

Ocean Fuels vision enables that to happen.

Its low cost, low carbon, sustainable and scalable with ample biomass potential to enable biofuels to be a meaningful part of transport energy without impacting on the worlds need for food.

Cultivation & Yields

OceanFuel is the first company in the world to have developed a cost effective cultivation system, and their scientists have identified species of seaweed that photosynthesise high levels of carbohydrates. This makes the seaweed biomass suitable as substrate for microbial conversion into ethanol. OceanFuel’s cultivation system allows different species to grow on a specially designed ‘growth platform’ in the ocean.

This multi-level ‘column’ enables the different species of seaweed to achieve optimal growth at different times of the year, thereby allowing harvesting of raw material three or four times a year from the same platform. A mechanical ROV harvester has been developed for this purpose with Underwater Contractors Spain, SL a, Spanish Marine engineering company. This allows mechanical harvesting and pumping the seaweed biomass into a well-boat all operated from a boat without the need of divers.

On a like-for-like basis, cultivating one hectare of seaweed in the ocean using OceanFuel’s system will yield the equivalent amount of biomass as that of corn grown on 10+ hectares of land (see the table 1 opposite).

After 2 years of development Oceanfuel can extract the protein from the biomass with an amino acid profile equal or better than fish meal and 90% pure. We have agreements with several feed producers to sell this at fishmeal prices with the advantage of a fixed price.

After protein extraction, oil and pigments are removed and used for aquaculture in-feed solutions and or health food applications. Agreements are in place with fish and shrimp feed manufactures to buy this as an alternative to colorants and expensive oils.

The resulting carbohydrate slurry is further separated into a water-soluble fraction and a solids fraction.

Different celebrations of Makar Sankranti across India

Different celebrations of Makar Sankranti across India

Makar Sankranti celebrations

Makar Sankranti celebrations

 

 

 

 

 

Makar Sankranti is celebrated in different manners across India. Bengalis make sweets, Telugus burn old items of the house, Punjabis create a bon fire. In short, the entire nation welcomes the new season of harvest in different styles, but with a single notion of joy.

Different Indian festivals that celebrate Makar Sankranti:

1. Four-day long festival, Andhra Pradesh and Telengana 

People of Andhra Pradesh and Telengana celebrate the festival for four days. Each day signifies a different aspect of the dawning season. Day one is known as ‘Bhogi’ when people sell or throw away old household items and get new replacements, marking the course of change. At dawn, they light a bon fire where all old materials are discarded signifying the fire of knowledge of Rudra, a form of Lord Shiva. Children are showered with ber or Indian Jujube, also known as Regi Pandlu in Telugu, to protect them from evil threats.

Day two is for the main occasion, Makar Sankranti, which is celebrated with family. People wear new clothes and eat homemade sweet delicacies. Each house dons a Rangoli or ‘Muggu’ (Telugu).

Day three is known as Kanuma and is celebrated by feeding cattle and day four, known as Mukkanuma, is celebrated by spending time with family members and arranging fun activities such as bullock or ox races, kite flying, and cock fights.

Image source: Hop around India

2. Sakraat, Bihar and Jharkhand

People from Bihar and Jharkhand celebrate the festival for two days. They call it Sakraat or Khichdi in their local dialects.

On the first day, the day of Makar Sankranti, people bathe in ponds and rivers and taste the sweet dishes of the season. The sweet delicacies include a special item called Tilgud, which are small balls made of sesame seed and jaggery. Tilgud is the iconic dish of the festival all over India.

On the second day, called Makraat, is celebrated by having khichdi, a dish made of dal, rice, cauliflower, peas and potatoes.

Image source: Bihar Spider

3. Uttarayan, Gujarat

Makar Sankranti or Uttarayan is major festival for the Gujarati people. The festival lasts for two days much like Sakraat.

The first day is celebrated on January 14 and is called Uttarayan. The word originates from the course that the Sun takes as it starts to move along the northern sky. The day of Uttarayan is celebrated by flying kites or ‘patang’. Kite flying contests are held across the state and people engage in kite fights. Words and phrases such as “Kai po che”, “E Lapet”, “Phirki vet phirki” is shouted at the time of the fights. ‘Kai po che’ is said to taunt the losing side when a kite cuts the thread of another one.

The next day is called Vasi (meaning stale) Uttarayan. Dishes like Undhiyu, which is a mix of winter vegetables and Chikki, made of sesame seeds, peanuts and jaggery, are made to celebrate the occasion.

Image source: WordPress

4. Lohri, Punjab

The Punjabi festival Lohri is celebrated by the people from the Punjab region of South Asia on Januray 13, every year. The festival is associated with the harvest of the winter crops and is celebrated by people from Punjab. The time of Lohri is considered as an ideal season to harvest sugarcane. Thus, the crop has become an iconic item of the festival for farmers.

The day after Lohri, also known as Maghi, is observed as the financial new year by the farmers in Punjab. Kite flying on Lohri is popular in some parts of Punjab. On the night of Lohri, people light bon fires to worship the god of fire and perform rituals.

Image source: Tribune India

5. Makar Sankrant, Maharashtra

Makar Sankranti is huge in Maharashtra. The whole state bursts with joy and merriment. The festival is celebrated for three days. People exchange Tilgud, Halwa, Puran Poli. The phrase “til-gul ghya, aani god-god bola”, which means “Have tilgud and say sweet words”, is said while exchanging the sweets. This exchange of sweets is traditionally known to be an indication of truce between enemies.

The first day is known as Bhogi, the second as Sankrant and the third day is known as Kinkrant.

Apart from being a harvest festival, Sankrant in Maharashtra also celebrates the triumph of Goddess Sankranti over demon Sankarasur. Women, clad in black clothes, get together and apply Haldi-Kumkum (turmeric-vermillion) and exchange gifts in the form of clothes and utensils.

Makar Sankrant also honours the deity of education, Goddess Saraswati, and the ancestors.

Image source: Wikimedia

6. Pongal, Tamil Nadu

Much like Andhra and Telengana, Tamil Nadu also celebrates the festival of harvest in a grand fashion. The festival of harvest is known as Pongal in the state. The Tamil-speaking people celebrate Pongal for four days.

Day one is known as Bhogi Pandigai and is celebrated by burning old things of the house and replacing them with new ones. Leaves of Neem are placed along the walls and roofs of the houses to ward off evil. This ritual is called Kappu Kattu.

The second and the most important day is known as Thai Pongal or just Pongal. No, this Thai does not mean anything exotic. The word Thai in this context comes from the name of the month Thai in Tamil. The day is celebrated by having rice boiled with fresh milk and jaggery, topped with brown sugar, raisins and cashew nuts. The moment the first bubble rises from the rice pot, people shout “Ponggalo Ponggal” and blow conch shells to mark the advent of the new season of harvest.

The third day, known as Mattu Pongal, is marked by feeding cattle. Some villages organise Jallikattu, a festival of taming wild bulls. The fourth day, known as Kaanum Pongal, is celebrated with family members.

Image source: Usaallfestival

7. Poush Parbon, West Bengal

Mouth-watering sweets and the smell of fresh cut rice marks the festival of harvest in West Bengal. Puli Pithe, Paatisapta, Maalpoaa, Narkel Nadu, Til Nadu are some of the most famous sweet dishes that mark Poush Parbon. Khejurer Gur or jaggery made from dates is the iconic item of the Poush Parbon.

The origin of the word Poush is much like the Tamil word Thai, which comes from the name of the month according to the Bengali calendar. The word Parbon means festival in Bengali.

West Bengal is also famous for the traditional Ganga Sagar carnival. Millions of devotees come to the confluence of river Ganges and the Bay of Bengal to bathe before dawn and worship Lord Shiva and Goddess Ganga. The Hindu God of Justice, Dharma, is also worshipped on Makar Sankranti.

Image source: Dastor News

8. Kumbh Mela

The Kumbh Mela or Kumbh Fair is the highlight of Makar Sankranti in India. It is the largest religious gathering in the world. It is so big that it can be traced via satellites. However, only four fairs are recognised as the traditional Kumbh Mela– Haridwar Kumbh Mela, Allahabad Kumbh Mela, Nashik-Trimbakeshwar Simhastha and Ujjain Simhastha. Pilgrims come from all corners of the country to bathe in rivers and worship the Hindu deities.

Image source: Kumbh Archives

 

WEST BENGAL SHOULD INCREASE USE OF NATURAL DYES AND COLOURS THIS WILL ALSO CREATE MORE BUSINESS

WEST BENGAL  GOVT SHOULD USE MORE NATURAL DYES FOR COTTON , SILK , WOOL AND LINEN .

FLOWER MARKETS ARE ALSO GOOD SOURCE FOR NATURAL DYES AND COLOURS.

 

WEST BENGAL SHOULD GROW ALL TYPES OF FLOWERS FROM ROSE TO ORCHIDS AND THEY SHOULD MAKE USE OF NATURAL DYES  AND USE NATURAL COLOURS IN GREETING CARDS MADE OF JUTE PAPER

http://www.hollandflower.com/

MAKING ORGANIC COLOURS SHOULD BE A DONE ON A LARGE SCALE .

WEST BENGAL GOVT SHOULD PROMOTE USE OF NATURAL COLOURS IN GREETING CARDS MADE OF JUTE PAPER THERE ARE MANY GREETING CARDS STORES .

greeting cards stores

https://www.google.co.in/?gfe_rd=cr&ei=wuCGVsDyBMWL8QebiLfgDQ#q=greeting+cards+stores+

 

dried flowers greeting cards

https://www.google.co.in/?gfe_rd=cr&ei=wuCGVsDyBMWL8QebiLfgDQ#q=dried+flowers+greeting+cards

GROWING DIFFERENT TYPES OF FLOWERS CAN BE USED AS A SOURCE OF NATURAL FLOWERS IN CANDLES.

 

natural flowers use in candles

https://www.google.co.in/search?q=natural+flowers+use+in+candles&biw=1517&bih=741&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj_5NDZwonKAhVVBY4KHROcAaUQ_AUIBigB&dpr=0.9

GROWING BONSAI  TREES  IS ALSO A GOOD MARKET

https://www.google.co.in/search?q=bonsai+tree&biw=1517&bih=741&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi35Y7RxInKAhVMj44KHWhbA0YQ_AUIBigB&dpr=0.9

http://www.whatshot.in/cities/making-organic-colors-at-home-c-289

 

Making Organic Colors at Home

Instead of using chemical-laden Holi colours bought from the market, why not check out these simple ways to make your colours at home.

*This content was published earlier and needs to be updated*

Bura na manno holi hai! Playing holi in typical Indian style means a blast of colors all over you. When these chemically loaded colors come in contact with your skin they tend to react, leaving your skin damaged. And that’s not a feel good factor at all. But why does that keeps you away from playing this fun and frolic festival, hence opt for home made holi colors, which are 100% natural and 200% safe. There are many options that are available in the market but we still don’t have an idea of the “natural” content in the pack so, it’s better to do it yourself at your home and we will tell you how.

The colors that are available in market are extremely harmful and you can detect that by just smelling them. The colors stink due to the presence of harsh chemicals in them and for at least 2-3 days you have to lock yourself in your home as they doesn’t wash off easily. The chemicals can harm in many ways like:

> Lead Oxide (Black): Renal failure, learning disability

> Copper Sulphate (Green): Eye allergy, temporary blindness

> Chromium Iodide (Purple): Bronchial asthma, allergies

> Aluminium Bromide (Silver): Carcinogenic

> Mercury Sulphite (Red): Skin cancer    

So, using home made colors is the safest option, they’d go off easily, won’t harm your skin and won’t even cost you much.

Let’s paint the world naturally!

Home Made Holi Colors

> To prepare red color you can get some red sandal wood which is easily available in the market. The best part is that generally this sandal wood is used as face pack. Another way to prepare red color is to dry red hibiscus flower or rose petals, grind them and it’s ready.

> Let’s go green now, take some heena leaves, dry them and grind them for a dry version. To make wet green color soak the heena leaves overnight and your wet green color is ready. Alternatives: You can also use coriander leaves or spinach to make green color.

> For blue, use petals of blue hibiscus flower, grind them and play. Another option, you can use indigo or commonly known as neel (whitening agent) to play.

> Be a dirty fellow with yellow. To make yellow color at home you can use turmeric or haldi powder. You can use kasturi turmeric instead of the normal one as it has a soothing fragrance or you can take petals of marigold flowers (ghenda), dry them and grind them to make herbal yellow color.

> For orange or saffron you can use the petals of Palash flower and follow the same process of drying and grinding.

> To derive violet color use beet root juice and add water in it to increase its quantity.

> For black color you can use black grapes, grind them and separate its pulp (or not) and add water to increase its quantity. Another option, take a steel bowl, clean it and polish the inner surface with mustard oil. Place a candle and on top of it put the steel bowl (oil side) on the candle overnight. Kajal or black dye will be formed which will act as your black color.

> For brown color you can boil tea leaves and cool it down. Add water to increase its quantity and use it.

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Eco Dyeing With Flowers: Part 1

http://blog.freepeople.com/2013/01/eco-dyeing-flowers-part-1/

Eco Dyeing With Flowers: Part 1

Post image for Eco Dyeing With Flowers: Part 1I have always loved experimenting with natural dyes.  The colors found in nature, in flowers, plants, and vegetables are so much more vibrant and beautiful than artificial colors, and it’s extremely rewarding when you are able to capture that color on a piece of fabric and wear it. It’s also just really fun to do, and something I’ve been wanting to experiment more with ever since my first experiment with fruits and vegetables.  I recently discovered India Flint, an innovator in the art of natural dye, and her work completely blows me away.  She is an expert when it comes to eco dyeing and her book “Eco Colour: Botanical Dyes For Beautiful Textiles” is a must-read if you’re interested in learning more about this practice.  She and other eco dyers use a method of covering a piece of fabric with your plant materials of choice, and wrapping it around a stick and tying it into a little bundle that is then steamed.  I was intrigued and knew I had to attempt it!

eco dyeing with flowers

 

What you need: A piece of fabric, a stick, and flowers.  You’ll also need a stove, large pot and a colander (if you don’t have a steamer) to steam the bundles.

eco dyeing with flowers

 

Lay out your piece of fabric and start placing the flowers on it.  The first batch of flowers was a bouquet that included roses, lilies, and chrysanthemums. I decided to take the petals off of the rose and spread them out a bit.

 

I couldn’t eco dyeing with flowersresist… 😉

eco dyeing with flowers

I decided to keep the rose petals towards one end and more green towards the other end.

eco dyeing with flowers

Once you’re happy with how your flowers are arranged, place the stick on one end and roll your fabric around it.

 

eco dyeing with flowers

I decided to make two bundles because I wasn’t sure how the flowers I chose would work out.  For the second one I used some primroses, begonias, African violets, and more rose petals.

eco dyeing with flowers

I love the deep red color of these African violets, and their leaves have a nice color too that I hope works well for this!

eco dyeing with flowers

 

eco dyeing with flowers

 

eco dyeing with flowers

eco dyeing with flowers

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Once your bundles are rolled up, wrap them with twine to secure them.  When I get home I’m going to steam them for an hour.  I don’t have a steamer, if you don’t either, just place a colander inside a large pot and fill with water up to the bottom of the colander.  Place the bundles in the colander and boil the water to let them steam.  After an hour you can remove them and let them cool over night.  If you want to give them more time, put the bundles in airtight Ziploc bags and let them sit for a few days.

I can’t wait to see how this works! Stay tuned, I’ll reveal my results next week!

UPDATE: Check out the results in Eco Dyeing with Flowers, Part 2!

More DIY Projects from the BLDG 25 Blog.

Photos by Julia.

Source: Eco Dyeing With Flowers: Part 1 http://blog.freepeople.com/2013/01/eco-dyeing-flowers-part-1/#ixzz3w1lZ6LNB

 

Developing multiple natural dyes from flower parts of Gulmohar

http://www.fibre2fashion.com/industry-article/1/94/developing-multiple-natural-dyes-from-flower-parts-of-gulmohar1.asp

Recently, interest in the use of natural dyes has been growing rapidly due to the result of stringent environmental standards imposed by many countries in response to toxic and allergic reactions associated with synthetic dyes1. Until about 150 years ago all dyes were natural substances, derived mainly from plants and animals. The natural dyes present in plants and animals are pigmentary molecules 2, 3, which impart colour, to the materials. Pigmentary molecules containing aromatic ring structure coupled with a side chain are usually required for resonance and thus to impart colour. There is a correlation of chemical structure with and chromogen-chromophore with auxochrome.

Chromogen is the aromatic structure containing benzene, naphthalene or anthracene rings. The chromogen chromophore structure is often not sufficient to impart solubility and cause adherence of the dye to the fibre, but the presence of auxochrome or bonding affinity groups enhances adherence properties of the dye to the fabrics. With the world becoming more conscious towards ecology and environment, there is greater need today to revive the tradition of natural dye and dyeing techniques as an alternative of hazardous synthetic dyes. The traditional method of dyeing is extremely crude. It is well known that the rural folk dye the yarn by heating chopped leaves or flowers of the plant in water. The process lacks proper shade calculation and reproducibility of shade for subsequent dyeing processes. It is also laborious and time-consuming.

There are several plants/plant parts that provide natural dyes4–9 which are used in the textile industry. The literaturereveals10–15 the chemical composition and biological study of the different parts of Delonix regia ‘Gulmohur’, but no reports exist so far on the extraction of natural dyes from D. regia and their applications. The present investigation deals with the extraction of natural dyes from different flower parts of D. regia and their applications on textiles. D. regia grows in all warm and damp parts of India, and is considered to be one of the most beautiful trees in the world. The tree produces striking flame-like scarlet and yellow flowers during spring before the leaves emerge.

Flowers are brilliant red, the uppermost petal streaked with tallow or yellow-and-white, petals stalked, their distal part abruptly expanded, orbicular, with wavy-crinkled edges, each about 4–6 cm long. Stamens decline together, curving out and down. It has been reported16 that the Gulmohur flower contains flavonoids such as leucoanthocyanin and carotenoids such as lutein, zeaxanthin, violoxanthin, neoxanthin, auroxanthin,5,6-monoepoxylutein, antheraxanthin and flavoxanthin, which are responsible for dyeing. Work has been carried out to prepare eco-friendly natural dyes from different parts of Gulmohur flower and application of colouring materials on cotton and silk yarns. Different parts such as petal, calyx, petal with reproductive organ and whole flowers were extracted separately with methanol as solvent at room temperature. Different parts of the flower were extracted in different time intervals such as 3 h (part I) and subsequently 6 h (part II).

The plant parts (100 g) were taken in pure methanol (500 ml) as solvent for extraction. The organic solvent was then distilled-off to get a brownish-black coloured pasty mass. Total yield of the mass was 8%. The pasty mass (1 g) was used in 20 ml of 0.5% sodium hydroxide solution to make a dye solution for different fabrics such as cotton and silk. The dyeing bath temperature was maintained at 60°C and time of dyeing was 45 min for every procedure at pH range 7–8. Light fastness study of the dyed yarn was carried out by washing with water, soap, rubbing, drying at room temperature and then direct sunlight and exposing the dry yarn to Digi-light for its fastness properties. Silk fabrics showed attractive shades with the dye materials, but cotton fabrics offered dull shades which do not give light fastness properties. Some of the findings are reported in Table 1.

In case of Sl.-1 and Sl.-2, the dye concentrations are the same at the time of dyeing with different dyeing conditions. The Sl.-1 offers golden yellow shades in presence of turmeric on silk fabrics whereas Sl.-2 offers olive green in presence of alum as mordant. The result of dyeing depends upon the concentration of dye after extraction as well as the dyeing condition. However, the dye concentration in Sl.-4 and Sl.-6 is the same as the result for both the cases are similar under the same dyeing conditions. Sl.-4 and Sl. – 6 both give olive green shade using alum as mordant. Sl.-3 gave dark tan shade with turmeric powder and Sl.-5 gave saddle brown shades without mordant with different dyeing conditions. Colouring material extracted from the petal along with reproductive organ (Sl.-7) offers dark brown shades without mordant on silk fabrics, whereas Sl.-8 gave brown shades with alum as mordant. Sl.-9 gave brown shades on silk fabrics without using any mordant. The shades are compared with the nearest equivalent shades according to pantone textile colour guide.

http://www.allnaturaldyeing.com/natural-dye-colors/

Natural Dye Colors

Please remember that when embarking on your natural dyeing adventures you take care of the environment and sustainability of dye resources and only remove a portion of those available in any one given area.

 

There are a multitude of naturally dyed yarns, rovings and fabrics out there and sometimes it is hard to imagine where the colors have come from but nature is an amazing thing and add to that a little chemistry and you have a wide array of colors to choose from for your next knitting or sewing project.

There are many naturally occurring plants, minerals and crustaceans in nature that you can use to extract color and produce natural dyes to give soft pastel or rich natural colors to your yarn or fabric.  As with everything, some work better than others and produce stronger and longer lasting color.  This list is far from exhaustive but will give you a good idea of which natural sources produce which colors.  Experimenting with whatever you have on hand is recommended and is half the fun of producing dyes, as you never know what you will discover.

Some things will give different color dye depending on what mordant you use with them or how long they are processed for.  For instance, logwood, mordanted with alum, will give a mauve color and with chrome mordant will give a lovely blue.  Many yellow dye baths will give a greeny hue if used with an Alum mordant but using chrome or tin will brighten them to a clearer yellow and iron will produce a golden yellow to brown.

We recommend you use test pieces of yarn or fabric to ensure you get the color control you want, before embarking on a major dyeing spree.

The most common resources for making dyes are in bold format.

Natural Dye Colors from red hibiscus flowers

Dried Hibiscus flowers,  Extracting the Dye,   Dye vat with yarn & end color results ©Allnaturaldyeing.com

Natural Dyeing – Reds

tip: When making red dyes be sure to slowly raise the temperature of the dye vat as reds have a tendency to go brown when too much heat is applied. The maximum temperature for red dyes should be 180C. DO NOT BOIL.

Cochineal – a small insect found on nopales or paddle cactus
Lac – insects
Hibiscus   – flowers
Madder    – roots
Red Elderberry – berries
Sumac – berries
Beetroot – root vegetable
Brazilwood – wood
St John’s Wort – whole plant
Sycamore – bark
Cadmium – mineral

Natural Dyeing – Redish Purples

Red Basil – whole plant
Dark Red Hibiscus – flowers
Daylillies – flowers past their prime
Vermillon – mineral
Lac – insect

Natural Dyeing – Pinks

Roses – flower
Lichens – whole plant
Cherries – fruit
White Bedstraw – roots

Natural Dyeing

Socks knit using yarn dyed with Turmeric roots

Natural Dyeing – Yellows

Bayleaves – leaves
Saffron – stamens
Marigold – flowers
Queen Annes Lace – flowers
St John’s Wort – plant
Golden Rod – flowers
Tumeric – roots or powder
Osage Orange – inner bark or shavings
Tea – leaves
Brown Onion – skins
Larkspur – plant
Chromium – mineral
Lead – mineral
Titanium – mineral

Natural Dye Color using brown onion skins

A good source of yellows and golds through to oranges can be achieved with brown onion skins.

Natural Dyeing – Oranges

Brown Onion – skins

Tumeric – roots
Giant Coreopsis – any part of the plant
Bloodroot – roots
Barberry – any part of the plant
Eucalyptus – leaves

Natural Dyeing – Browns

Oak Bark – bark
Walnut – Hulls
Dandelion – roots
Coffee – grinds
Yellow dock – plant
Ivy – woody stems
Golden Rod – shoots
Tea – leaves
Sumac – leaves, powder
Birch – bark
Brown Clay – clay soil
Limonite – clay
Octopus/cuttlefish – ink

Natural Dyeing – Blues to Bluish Purples

Dogwood – fruit
Hyacinth – flowers
Indigo – foliage
Red Maple Tree – inner bark

Woad – leaves
Mulberries – fruit
Elderberries – fruit
Blueberries – fruit
Cornflower – flowers
Blackbeans – dried bean
Cobalt – mineral
Copper – mineral
Murex Snail – trunculus

Natural Dyeing – Greens

Tea Tree – flowers
Spinach – leaves
Larkspur – plant
Red Onion – skins
Yarrow – flowers
Chamomile – leaves
Black-eyed Susans – flowers
Nettle – leaves
Dyer’s Broom – plant
Chromium – mineral

Natural dyeing

Image Credit boston7513kevin on flickr

Natural Dyeing – Grey to Black

Oak Galls – Galls
Sumac – leaves
Walnut – hulls
Iris – roots
Black Beans – dried bean
Titanium – mineral
Carbon – mineral

Producing natural dyes can be a long and sometimes difficult process to do yourself but many natural dyes can be bought online and the extraction process has already been done for you.
Tip: Cooling your dyes in the dye vat overnight will allow for maximum dye extraction from the plant.
If your yarn is not turning out the way you expected try try again or have a look at some online stores that sell natural dyes.

How To Dye Fabrics Using Natural Materials

Natural materials to use for dye

Not all natural materials will produce a dye, and some produce colors that are nothing like the original plant it came from. Here’s a list of colors and the plant material that will give you shades in that color.

  • Orange: carrots, gold lichen, onion skins
  • Brown: dandelion roots, oak bark, walnut hulls, tea, coffee, acorns
  • Pink: berries, cherries, red and pink roses, avocado skins and seeds (really!)
  • Blue: indigo, woad, red cabbage, elderberries, red mulberries, blueberries, purple grapes, dogwood bark
  • Red-brown: pomegranates, beets, bamboo, hibiscus (reddish color flowers), bloodroot
  • Grey-black: Blackberries, walnut hulls, iris root
  • Red-purple: red sumac berries, basil leaves, day lilies, pokeweed berries, huckleberries
  • Green: artichokes, sorrel roots, spinach, peppermint leaves, snapdragons, lilacs, grass, nettles, plantain, peach leaves
  • Yellow: bay leaves, marigolds, sunflower petals, St John’s Wort, dandelion flowers, paprika, turmeric, celery leaves, lilac twigs, Queen Anne’s Lace roots, mahonia roots, barberry roots, yellowroot roots, yellow dock roots
  • MAKING NATURAL DYES FROM PLANTS

    Making natural dyes from plants, fruit and flowers can be a fun project for boys as well as for girls.

    Bowls with flowers - natural dyes using plants - Just Kids - creative aactivities My Sheen Village_sThese days, kids seem to get bored even faster and keeping them occupied at home during the school holidays can be an uphill battle.  If you don’t like the idea of them being glued to a screen all day and want to get them outside into some fresh air, then making natural dyes from plants, fruit and flowers can be a fun project for boys as well as for girls.

    SOURCES OF DYES:

    Many sources of natural dyes can be found in your kitchen and garden: onion skins, carrots and the spice turmeric can all be used separately to make orange coloured dyes; rose hips and elderberry will produce reds; roses and lavender mixed with mint and lemon juice make a vibrant pink; and blueberries will make .. well ummm …… blue!

    For those of you who wish to create specific colours then a fuller list of some of the plants and flowers that are needed is given below.  However, it can also be fun to simply experiment with some roots, seeds or flower petals to discover the colours and shades you can create on your own.

    When gathering plants for dyes, do make sure that your berries are ripe and that flowers are picked in full bloom.  Do not over pick a plant since you want to leave the plant with enough seeds and growth potential to re-establish itself.

    EQUIPMENT YOU WILL NEED:

    A dye bath (eg. a large saucepan that no-one minds becoming stained)
    Another large saucepan for the fixative process
    Rubber gloves (essential unless you wish to dye your hands as well!)
    A large spoon for stirring the dye mixtures.
    A large sieve
    A large bowl (an old clean plastic washing up bowl should be adequate)
    Pieces of white pure cotton fabric (eg. old cotton sheets tore into smaller pieces and old or inexpensive white cotton t-shirts).  Other natural fabrics such as muslin, silk and wool can also be used.  Do not try to dye synthetics or natural fabrics that also contain some synthetic material.

    It is highly recommended that children wear old clothes and aprons to protect from splashes of plant dyes; you can be sure that, where paints and dyes are involved, children will inevitably get splashed somewhere.

    HOW TO MAKE YOUR DYE SOLUTION:

    Cut your plants or roots into small pieces and place them into your dye bath/saucepan.

    Then pour twice the amount of water to the amount of plant pieces you have into the bath.

    Place the saucepan onto the hob and bring it to the boil.

    For Flowers: boil for 20 minutes. Then strain the liquid through a sieve into your dye bath ready for your fabric. Note: the fabric needs to be soaked in the fixative before dyeing – see below.

    For Bark, Roots and other hard substances:  First soak these in water overnight.  Next day, bring the liquid to the boil and allow to continue for half an hour whilst making sure the liquid doesn’t all boil away.  Strain the remaining liquid off into a container and then add more water to the bark/roots and boil again.  Repeat this process 3 or 4 times until no more dye can be extracted from the plant material. Having poured the liquid off a number of times you should now have an intense colour liquid ready to use for dyeing your cloth.

    COLOUR FIXATIVES:

    Your fabrics will need to be soaked in the fixative before you can start dyeing them.

    For dye made from berries, you will need 250 grams of salt to 2 litres of cold water
    For dye made from plants, you will need 1 part of white vinegar to 4 parts of cold water.
    Some plant materials may need cooking quality Alum as a colour fixative.  Alum can be ordered on the internet if you are unable to find it at your local chemists.

    Dyeing pink cloth - Using natural dyes - creative activities - Just Kids - My Sheen VillageBefore making your dye, place your fabric into a saucepan with the appropriate fixative and simmer for one hour.  Then rinse the fabric a number of times, squeezing out the liquid each time until the water runs clear

    HOW TO DYE YOUR FABRIC:

    Place your wet fabric that has been soaked in the fixative into your dye bath.  Bring to the boil and simmer until the required colour is achieved.  Do not try and dye too much at one time.  There should be room for the item being dyed to be spread out otherwise it may become patchy in colour.

    Remember that the colour of the fabric will dry a lighter shade.  For a darker, stronger shade, allow the fabric to soak in the dye solution over night.

    Dyeing purple cloth - Using natural dyes - Creative Activities - Just Kids - My Sheen VillageOTHER IDEAS FOR DYING FABRIC

    These include tie dyeing or painting a pattern with the dye onto a t-shirt.

    To prevent the dye passing through from the front to the back of the t-shirt, insert a sheet of thick cardboard between the two layers, prior to painting.

    Note:  Although you have used a fixative for your fabric it is advisable to launder separately any clothes that have been treated with natural dyes.
    Note: Children should be supervised at all times.  Check that plants that you are using are not poisonous to humans or animals when using them for natural dyes.