DELHI HAS TO CHANGE ITS INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT POLICIES TO CURB POLLUTION FOR FUTURE
WHAT IS MAN MADE HAS TO BE IMPROVED THROUGH BETTER MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES.
ONE HAS TO ANALYSE THE MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES USED IN COMPANIES IN JAPAN.
BASED ON MANY POLICIES IMPLEMENTED IN COUNTRIES LIKE JAPAN ONE HAS TO ANALYSE THROUGH SWOT analysis
A SWOT analysis (alternatively SWOT matrix) is a structured planning method used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats involved in a project or in a business venture.
NOW SEE HOW COMPANIES IN JAPAN WORK COMPARE IT WITH THE INDUSTRIAL AREAS IN DELHI
NOW MEASURES TAKEN TO CONTROL INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION WILL ONLY SHOW A MINOR DIFFERENCE.
BUT THE MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES USED IN COMPANIES IN JAPAN WILL AUTOMATICALLY REDUCE INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION .
SO WHATEVER MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES JAPAN HAS IMPLEMENTED IN FUTURE IT WILL SECURE ITS ECONOMY FROM POLLUTION .
Solar panels to be fitted in all Japan’s new homes and buildings by 2030
Following measures have been taken to control industrial pollution in Delhi, the Capital of India.
1. All the three thermal power plants have been asked to comply with guidelines laid down for minimising air pollution.
2. All stone crushers have been closed down in Delhi and shifted to Pali in Rajasthan.
3. All the hot mix plants have been closed down and shifted to other states.
4. As per the directions of Hon’ble Supreme Court, 168 hazardous industries have been closed down in Delhi.
It is heartening to note that Delhi’s air has become cleaner as a result of the above mentioned measures. Central Pollution Control Board discovered that pollution levels had gone down by upto 73 per cent since 1996 (taken as the base level as pollution levels were the highest). According to the study, the drop in sulphur, lead and benzene content in the air has been high.
Hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide levels had gone down by around 83 and 75 per cent respectively since the base year. The highest reduction had been in lead content which had gone down by 91 per cent. The reason for this had been changeover to unleaded petrol.
Also, use of the low benzene variety has brought down the benzene content by 80 per cent. The conversion of the city’s transport fleet from diesel to CNG has resulted in the reduction of sulphur content by 90 per cent.
Closings shifting of polluting industries and use of washed coal in thermal power plants have also played their part. The only worrying aspect was the increase in SPM (Suspended Particulate Matter) levels. Though carbon monoxide levels had also gone down, they were still above the permissible limits. Table 9.13 depicts the improvement of air quality of Delhi in 2003 as compared to 1996.
TABLE 9.13 Levels of Air Pollutants in Ambient Air of Delhi (µg/m3):
|Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)||24||10|
|Nitrogen Oxide (NO2 )||47||102|
|Carbon Monoxide (CO)||5587||2500|
According to a study conducted by a Boston- based institute, Delhi is still one of the most polluted cities of Asia though the pollution levels have fallen in the recent years. The worrying factor is that while sulphur dioxide and nitrogen levels are lower than many other cities of Asia, the total suspended particulate (TSP) in the air still remains high. According to Daniel S. Greenbaum, president of Health Effects Institute, “if we compare Delhi with other Asian cities which have similar economic activity, the pollution levels in the capital are higher. It is mainly because regulation in Delhi is less than these cities.” Table 9.14 shows that the total suspended particulate (TSP) in Delhi is the highest among all major cities of Asia.
TABLE 9.14 Level of Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) in Major Cities of Asia:
|City (Country)||Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) in µgm/n3|
QUALITY ASSURANCE AND RELIABILITY
IN THE JAPANESE ELECTRONICS INDUSTRY
HISTORY OF JAPAN’S QUALITY MOVEMENT
The quality movement in Japan began in 1946 with the U.S. Occupation Force’s mission to revive and restructure Japan’s communications equipment industry. General Douglas MacArthur was committed to public education through radio. Homer Sarasohn was recruited to spearhead the effort by repairing and installing equipment, making materials and parts available, restarting factories, establishing the equipment test laboratory (ETL), and setting rigid quality standards for products (Tsurumi 1990). Sarasohn recommended individuals for company presidencies, like Koji Kobayashi of NEC, and he established education for Japan’s top executives in the management of quality. Furthermore, upon Sarasohn’s return to the United States, he recommended W. Edwards Deming to provide a seminar in Japan on statistical quality control (SQC).
Deming’s 1950 lecture notes provided the basis for a 30-day seminar sponsored by the Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers (JUSE) and provided the criteria for Japan’s famed Deming Prize. The first Deming Prize was given to Koji Kobayashi in 1952. Within a decade, JUSE had trained nearly 20,000 engineers in SQC methods. Today Japan gives high rating to companies that win the Deming prize; they number about ten large companies per year. Deming’s work has impacted industries such as those for radios and parts, transistors, cameras, binoculars, and sewing machines. In 1960, Deming was recognized for his contribution to Japan’s reindustrialization when the Prime Minister awarded him the Second Order of the Sacred Treasure.
In 1954, Dr. Joseph M. Juran of the United States raised the level of quality management from the factory to the total organization. He stressed the importance of systems thinking that begins with product designs, prototype testing, proper equipment operations, and accurate process feedback. Juran’s seminar also became a part of JUSE’s educational programs. Juran provided the move from SQC to TQC (total quality control) in Japan. This included company-wide activities and education in quality control (QC), QC circles and audits, and promotion of quality management principles. By 1968, Kaoru Ishikawa, one of the fathers of TQC in Japan, had outlined the elements of TQC management:
- quality comes first, not short-term profits
- the customer comes first, not the producer
- customers are the next process with no organizational barriers
- decisions are based on facts and data
- management is participatory and respectful of all employees
- management is driven by cross-functional committees covering product planning, product design, production planning, purchasing, manufacturing, sales, and distribution (Ishikawa 1985)
By 1991, JUSE had registered over 331,000 quality circles with over 2.5 million participants in its activities. Today, JUSE continues to provide over 200 courses per year, including five executive management courses, ten management courses, and a full range of technical training programs.
One of the innovative TQC methodologies developed in Japan is referred to as the “Ishikawa” or “cause-and-effect” diagram. After collecting statistical data, Ishikawa found that dispersion came from four common causes, as shown in Figure 6.1.
Materials often differ when sources of supply or size requirements vary. Equipment or machines also function differently depending on variations in their own parts, and they operate optimally for only part of the time. Processes or work methods have even greater variations. Finally, measurement also varies. All of these variations affect a product’s quality. Ishikawa’s diagram has lead Japanese firms to focus quality control attention on the improvement of materials, equipment, and processes.
JTEC panelists observed statistical process control (SPC) charts, often with goal lines extending into 1995, in a few of the factories they visited in 1993. For example, at Ibiden, process control was apparent in its laminated process board manufacture, where there was extensive use of drawings and descriptions of the processes necessary to do the job. Companies that were competing for the Deming Prize made extensive use of such charts, and companies that had received ISO 9000 certification also posted the process information required for each machine. However, the panel was surprised at the relatively limited use of SPC charts within the factories visited. The Japanese believe that the greatest benefit occurs when defect detection is implemented within the manufacturing sequence, thus minimizing the time required for detection, maximizing return on investment, and indirectly improving product reliability.
ISO 9000 Standards Certification
The concept of certification and standards, however, breaks down when global competitiveness is at stake. Most recently, ISO 9000 certification has become a requirement for exports to Europe, and Japan has been forced to obtain ISO certification, not because it is a quality issue, but because it is a way of increasing market share. The Japanese companies provide some of the highest-quality products, typically using company product standards (best commercial practices) rather than external standards like QML or any U.S. military standards.
The Japan Quality Association (JQA) is responsible for ISO certification. It was established in 1958 as the Japan Management Institute (JMI) under Japan’s Ministry of International Trade and Industry for the purpose of export inspection. In 1960, JMI moved from inspection to process certification, and in October 1993, JMI was renamed JQA to more aptly identify its mission. It has provided ISO 9000 certification in Japan since 1990 after receiving training from the British Standards Institution’s (BSI) quality assurance division, and it has memoranda of understanding with both BSI and Underwriters Laboratory (UL) in the United States for reciprocal certification acceptance.
By October of 1993, JQA had ISO-certified 300 firms in Japan, about 80% of which were electronics firms; the rest were chemical firms. JQA expected to have about 540 companies certified by the end of 1994. It was already booked through 1994, and there was a backlog of over a hundred companies waiting for certification. Most firms seeking certification were electronics firms that depended on exports to Europe. At the time of the JTEC visit, JQA was limited to about thirty assessments per month. It typically took companies one year to eighteen months to gain certification; most had little difficulty in obtaining ISO certification. In addition to JQA certification, there were an equal number of firms obtaining ISO certification from non-Japanese auditors.
When the JTEC panel visited Japan, Fujitsu, NEC, and Hitachi had the largest number of certified factories. Yamagata Fujitsu became ISO 9002-certified in February 1993 and was applying for ISO 9001 certification for early 1994. Fujitsu had over ten certified factories by the end of 1993. Most of the factories visited by the panel had either received ISO certification or were in the process of certification.
What is the historical background to Japan`s quality improvement process?
A. When Japan started its rapid industrialization phase post World War Two, there was a lack of effective management skills. Japan learned from overseas how to control management. They imported Statistical Quality Control (SQC) from the United States.
Statistical Quality Control began in the 1930`s with the industrial use of control charts. In order to meet wartime conditions, the production systems of the times needed to be revolutionized. By implementing SQC, the United States (and Britain) were able to produce supplies at lower cost and in large quantity. This was the origins of Statistical Quality Management and Japan`s quality improvement process journey. Dr. Deming is recognized for introducing quality control to Japan.
The SQC system was implemented in Japan and proved effective. However, after awhile, it was evident that this was not enough. It was realized that Statistical quality control had to be shared and practiced company wide in order for companies to meet their full production potential – from the top to the factory workers with total participation (full employee engagement).