Over 100,000 flee flooding in Paraguay, Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay

Houses are partially submerged in floodwaters in Asuncion, in this December 20, 2015 file photo.
REUTERS/JORGE ADORNO/FILES

More than 100,000 people have had to evacuate from their homes in the bordering areas of Paraguay, Uruguay, Brazil and Argentina due to severe flooding in the wake of heavy summer rains brought on by El Niño, authorities said on Saturday.

In the worse affected country, Paraguay, around 90,000 people in the area around the capital city of Asuncion have been evacuated, the municipal Emergencies Office said. Many are poor families living in precarious housing along the banks of the River Paraguay.

The Paraguayan government has declared a state of emergency in Asuncion and seven regions of the country to free up funds to help those affected. Several people have been killed by trees falling in the storms that caused the flooding, local media reported. There was no official death toll yet.

In Alberdi, some 120 kilometers (75 miles) south of Asuncion, the government recommended that several thousand more people living along the banks of the River Paraguay evacuate.

“(The flooding) was directly influenced by the El Niño phenomenon which has intensified the frequency and intensity of rains,” the national Emergencies Office said.

This year’s “El Nino,” which sparks global climate extremes, is the worst in more than 15 years, the U.N. weather agency, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), said last month.

“Severe droughts and devastating flooding being experienced throughout the tropics and sub-tropical zones bear the hallmarks of this El Nino, which is the strongest in more than 15 years,” WMO chief Michel Jarraud said in a statement.

Officials at Paraguay’s Emergencies Office said the river might rise even more in the coming days, stabilizing and falling back toward normal levels from January onwards.

BAD INFRASTRUCTURE

In northern Argentina, around 20,000 people have also had to abandon their homes, the government said on Saturday.

“We are going to have a few complicated months, the consequences will be serious,” said Ricardo Colombi, the governor of the Corrientes region, after flying over the worst affected areas with national Cabinet Chief Marcos Pena.

Pena said national government aid was already on its way and the new president, Mauricio Macri, who took office earlier this month, intended to make improving infrastructure a priority so that such flooding did not occur again.

“Argentina has a very big lack of infrastructure,” he said. Macri will visit the flooded areas on Sunday.

In Uruguay, more than 9,000 people have had to flee their homes, according to the national Emergencies Office, which added that it expected water levels to remain at their current level for several days before subsiding.

At least four people have died in Argentina and Uruguay due to the storms and floods, according to local media reports. One was reported to have drowned while another was electrocuted by a fallen power cable.

Brazil’s President Dilma Rousseff also flew over the flooded areas on the border with Argentina and Uruguay on Saturday morning. Rio Grande do Sul state Civil Defense said 1,795 people were left homeless there after 38 towns were affected by heavy rains.

(Additional reporting by Matias Larramendi in Montevideo and Anthony Boadle in Brasilia; Writing by Sarah Marsh; Editing by Sandra Maler)

 

WEST BENGAL SHOULD INCREASE THE PRODUCTION OF OTHER CROPS FOR A BALANCED REVENUE

Holland is world’s leading supplier of flowers, plants and trees

INDIA HAS LARGEST  ROSE GARDEN IN ASIA WITH 1600 VARIETIES OF ROSES COVERING 27 ACRES IN CHANDIGARH

(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zakir_Hussain_Rose_Garden)BUT THEN ALSO IT IS NOT A GOOD EXPORTER OF FLOWERS .

BASED ON LARGEST ROSE GARDEN IN ASIA  ATLEAST WEST BENGAL SHOULD TRY TO DIVERSIFY ITS CROPS FOR ROSE CULTIVATION AND OTHER PLANTS.

 

http://www.handcraft.co.in/38-garden-bags

APART FROM GROWING POTATOES A FARMER CAN GROW ROSES IN  ONE ACRE OF LAND AND SELL THESE PLANTS GROWN IN JUTE BAGS . WEST BENGAL SHOULD TRY TO GROW 1600 VARIETIES OF ROSES IN JUTE BAGS .

1600 VARIETIES OF ROSES MEANS YOU CAN GET MANY TYPES OF NATURAL PERFUMES AND OTHER PRODUCTS  FROM ROSES .

WEST BENGAL SHOULD ALSO PAY MORE ATTENTION TO SILK FARMING DIVERSE FARMING WILL STOP THE PROBLEMS OF FARMER.

HOW IS SILK MADE?

 

Silkworm Rearing-1

 

One of the softest fabrics on the planet, shiny, breathable and comfortable, silk has been a highly prized cloth since it was first harvested thousands of years ago. And despite advances in production methods and new possibilities for cultivation, still today the only reasonable way to glean the thread in mass quantities is by killing the thing that made it.

Silkworms are caterpillars of (usually) theBombyx mori moth. During its 3 to 8 day pupating period, the silkworm secretes fibroin, a sticky liquid protein, from its two sericteries (special salivary glands). Pushed through a spinneret (opening on the mouth), the twin pair of continuous threads harden when they come into contact with the air. Next, the silkworm secretes sericin, a bonding agent, from two other glands to hold the two filaments together. While constructing its cocoon, the silkworm will twist in a figure-8 motion about 300,000 times and produce around 1 kilometer of filament.

Since hatching from the cocoon destroys the thread, to harvest the silk, the cocoon is placed in either boiling water, or blasted with steam or hot air, all processes that kill the pupae. Less lethal methods were tried in the past, such as pulling the silk as the worms spun it, but the worms resisted and bit off the filaments (the longest thread harvested in this way was just 6 meters).

Besides killing the pupae, the heat softens the binding agent (sericin), so that the filaments may be unwound. Sometimes, the softened sericin is left on the fibers, and this product is called raw silk. In the end, it takes the deaths of about 2500 caterpillars to make a single pound of raw silk.

From there, raw silk strands are twisted together until a fiber of sufficient strength for knitting or weaving is produced, and different twisting methods produce a different type of thread: crepe, thrown, tram, organzine or singles. Crinkly fabrics are made with crepe, while sheer cloth is made with single thread. Spun silk is comprised of broken filaments that have been processed into a yarn.

To get the billions of cocoons necessary to have a viable silk industry (by some estimates, about 10 billion each year), the worms are cultivated. Called sericulture, it begins with female moths, each laying about 300-400 pin-sized eggs, shortly after which they (the moths) die. The eggs are incubated for 10 days. When they hatch, they are still tiny (about ¼ inch). Gluttons, they feast on mulberry leaves (although lesser-quality silks are made from silkworms that eat Osage orange and lettuce). After about 6 weeks of constant eating, the silkworm has grown to about 3 inches in length, weighs nearly 10,000 times what it did when it hatched and begins to work on spinning its own grave.

Although a few other plants are fed to silkworms, the mulberry has always been associated with its production. In fact, when the Emperor Justinian first stole the means of silk production in the 6th century AD (according to legend, he had two monks smuggle some eggs out of China), he also pinched a few seeds of the mulberry tree.

Prior to that, the Chinese had carefully guarded the secret to silk for millennia. According to Chinese records, the technique was discovered by Si-ling-chi (aka Leizu), the wife of the “Yellow Emperor” Huang-ti, about 2,700 BC. By some accounts, she found the secret after a silkworm cocoon fell into her cup of tea, and as she pulled it out, she realized she could unravel its exquisite thread. Of course, it may have been discovered by someone else, perhaps a lowly tailor, with the empress simply taking (or being given) credit for it. Whatever the case, so important was this discovery that she was later deified and given the name, Seine-Than, meaning Goddess of Silk Worms; and the silk she supposedly discovered became so crucial to international trade, that it lent its name to the great East-West route, the Silk Road.

Today, China still leads the world in silk production, responsible for about 58,000 tons each year or about 74% of the world’s supply of raw silk. Not wasted, in many places the leftover dead silkworms are seasoned, boiled, fried and eaten.

Still, things may be looking up for the humble silkworm. Some kindly researchers have recently discovered a method to harvest long filaments without killing the creature. Noticing that when injured the caterpillar will engage in self-paralysis in order to give itself time to heal, the scientists found a way to isolate the biochemical used by the insect to reach that state. By extracting it and injecting it into healthy worms, the researchers were able to induce partial paralysis, after which, one end of the worm’s silk was attached to a slowly winding reel, which successfully gathered the silk. In its paralyzed state, the worm was unable to bite off the thread (as it otherwise would do). The record for gathering silk this way is 500 meters, or about half of that acquired through the traditional method.

Since hand-injecting billions of silkworms is beyond unrealistic, to turn this process into a commercial reality, the researchers are looking into ways to genetically modify silkworms so that the paralysis can be triggered by manufacturers “on demand.”

If you liked this article, you might also enjoy:

Healthy Farm Practices: Crop Diversity and Rotation

http://www.ucsusa.org/food_and_agriculture/solutions/advance-sustainable-agriculture/crop-diversity-and-rotation.html#.Vn8V1RV97IU

WEST BENGAL GOVT SHOULD MAKE SURE THAT APART FROM GROWING A SINGLE CROP LIKE POTATO A FARMER SHOULD GROW OTHER CROPS FOR HIS DAILY USE IN A SMALL PIECE OF LAND .EACH AND EVERY FARMER SHOULD HAVE A COMBINATION OF VEGETABLES FOR HIS DAILY USE APART FROM POTATO CROP .

http://www.vegrecipesofindia.com/glossary-indian-vegetables/

http://www.nriol.com/resources/grocery/bengali.asp

WEST BENGAL GOVT SHOULD PROVIDE SEEDS FOR OTHER CROPS . IF THE FARMER LOSES HIS POTATO CROP HE SHOULD ATLEAST RUN HIS FAMILY BASED ON OTHER CROPS GROWN IN A PIECE OF LAND FOR SURVIVAL.   THIS ALSO REDUCES MALNUTRITION . DIVERSITY IN GROWING CROPS WILL ENCOURAGE FARMERS TO EARN MORE WITHOUT ANY LOSS.

Specific similarities between the lives of Jesus and Krishna

Implications of points of similarity between the lives of Jesus and Krishna:

Krishna is the second person of the Hindu Trinity. He is considered to be one of the incarnations of the God Vishnu. Some Hindus believe that he lived on Earth during perhaps the 2nd or 3rd century BCE. However, “Traditional belief based on scriptural details and astrological calculations gives Krishna’s birth” year as 3228 BCE. 12  Yeshua of Nazareth is generally regarded as having been born in Palestine circa 4 to 7 BCE. Thus, if there are many points of similarities between these two individuals, most skeptics and some religious liberals would accept that elements of Krishna’s life were incorporated into the legends associated with Jesus rather than vice-versa.

Other reasons for the similarities between Jesus and Krishna’s life stories on Earth have been suggested which are more acceptable to conservative Christians who believe in the inerrancy of the Bible, in the inspiration of the Bible’s authors by God, and in the belief that Jesus is God’s only son and the world’s only savior:

bullet Legends of Krishna’s life are lies which Satan created to discredit Christianity in advance of Jesus’ birth.
bullet The similarities in the two lives are simple coincidences.
bullet Krishna’s life was a type of prophecy foretelling the arrival of the Christian Messiah.

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Correspondences between events in Jesus’ and Krishna’s life:

Author Kersey Graves (1813-1883), a Quaker from Indiana, compared Yeshua’s and Krishna’s life. He found what he believed were 346 elements in common within Christiana and Hindu writings. 1 That appears to be overwhelming evidence that incidents in Jesus’ life were copied from Krishna’s. However, many of Graves’ points of similarity are a real stretch.

He did report some amazing coincidences:

bullet #6 & 45: Yeshua and Krishna were called both a God and the Son of God.
bullet 7: Both was sent from heaven to earth in the form of a man.
bullet 8 & 46: Both were called Savior, and the second person of the Trinity.
bullet 13, 15, 16 & 23: His adoptive human father was a carpenter.
bullet 18: A spirit or ghost was their actual father.
bullet 21: Krishna and Jesus were of royal descent.
bullet 27 & 28: Both were visited at birth by wise men and shepherds, guided by a star.
bullet 30 to 34: Angels in both cases issued a warning that the local dictator planned to kill the baby and had issued a decree for his assassination. The parents fled. Mary and Joseph stayed in Muturea; Krishna’s parents stayed in Mathura.
bullet 41 & 42: Both Yeshua and Krishna withdrew to the wilderness as adults, and fasted.
bullet 56: Both were identified as “the seed of the woman bruising the serpent’s head.”
bullet 58: Jesus was called “the lion of the tribe of Judah.” Krishna was called “the lion of the tribe of Saki.”
bullet 60: Both claimed: “I am the Resurrection.”
bullet 64: Both referred to themselves having existed before their birth on earth.
bullet 66: Both were “without sin.”
bullet 72: Both were god-men: being considered both human and divine.
bullet 76, 77, & 78: They were both considered omniscient, omnipotent, and omnipresent.
bullet 83, 84, & 85: Both performed many miracles, including the healing of disease. One of the first miracles that both performed was to make a leper whole. Each cured “all manner of diseases.”
bullet 86 & 87: Both cast out indwelling demons, and raised the dead.
bullet 101: Both selected disciples to spread his teachings.
bullet 109 to 112: Both were meek, and merciful. Both were criticized for associating with sinners.
bullet 115: Both encountered a Gentile woman at a well.
bullet 121 to 127: Both celebrated a last supper. Both forgave his enemies.
bullet 128 to 131: Both descended into Hell, and were resurrected. Many people witnessed their ascensions into heaven.

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Errors in Graves’ book:

Due either to carelessness, or the primitive knowledge of religious history in the late 19th century, it appears that Graves made some errors in his book. He reported that:

bullet Both Krishna and Yeshua were born on December 25.

bullet Actually, Krishna is traditionally believed to have been born during August. The festival Janmashtami is held in honor of this birth.
bullet The birth day of Jesus is unknown, but is believed by many to have also been about August during some year between 4 and 7 BCE.
bullet December 25th was chosen for Christmas to coincide with a pre-existent Pagan Roman holiday, Saturnalia. December 25th was also recognized in ancient times as the birth day of various other god-men such as Attis and Mithra. All were linked to the winter solstice, which occurs about DEC-21.
bullet Jesus’ and Krishna’s mothers were holy virgins:

bullet Actually, the virginal state of Mary when she conceived Jesus is a matter of debate. Paul and the author(s) of the Gospel of John appear to directly reject the concept. The author of the Gospel of Mark appears to have been unaware of it. The authors of Matthew and Luke accepted the belief. Christians today are divided.
bullet The virginal state of Devaki is also a matter of debate. One tradition states that Krishna was her eighth child. Another states that it was a virgin birth: “In the context of myth and religion, the virgin birth is applied to any miraculous conception and birth. In this sense, whether the mother is technically a virgin is of secondary importance to the fact that she conceives and gives birth by some means other than the ordinary….the divine Vishnu himself descended into the womb of Devaki and was born as her son Krishna.11
bullet Jesus’ and Krishna’s mothers had similar names: Miriam (Mary) and Maia

bullet In reality, Krishna’s mother may have been referred to as Maia, but only because this is the Hindi word for “mother.” His mother’s actual name was Devaki; his foster mother’s name was Yashoda.

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Points of similarity found by other writers:

In addition, there are other points of similarity between Krishna and Yeshua:

bullet The object of Krishna’s birth was to bring about a victory of good over evil.2
bullet  Krishna “came onto earth to cleanse the sins of the human beings.” 2
bullet Krishna was born while his foster-father Nanda was in the city to pay his tax to the king.3 Yeshua was born while his foster-father, Joseph, was in the city to be enumerated in a census so that “all the world could be taxed.
bullet Jesus is recorded as saying: “if you had faith as a mustard seed you would say to the mountain uproot yourself and be cast into the ocean” Krishna is reported as having uprooted a small mountain. 4
bullet Krishna’s “…foster-father Nanda had to journey to Mathura to pay his taxes” just as Jesus foster-father Joseph is recorded in the Gospel of Luke as having to go to Bethlehem to pay taxes. 10
bullet The story about the birth of Elizabeth’s son John (the Baptist), cousin of Jesus, corresponds with the story in the Krishna myth about the birth of the child of Nanda and his wife Yasoda.10 Nanda was the foster-father of Krishna.
bullet The Greek God Dionysos, Jesus and Krishna were all said to have been placed in a manger basket after birth. 10

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Were Krishna and Yeshua both crucified and later raised to heaven?

In addition to the above points of correspondence between Yeshua and Krishna, there may be one more similarity: they may have both been crucified.

In his book, Graves stated flatly that both Yeshua and Krishna were crucified between two thieves, at the age of about 30 to 36 by “wicked hands.”  However, this may have been wishful thinking. The “common, orthodox depiction of Krishna’s death relates that he was shot in the foot with an arrow while under a tree.5 But:

bullet The author Jacolliot, referring to the “Bagaveda-Gita and Brahminical traditions,” states that the body of Krishna: “was suspended to the branches of a tree by his murderer, that it might become the prey of the vultures…[Later] the mortal frame of the Redeemer had disappeared–no doubt it had regained the celestial abodes…6
bullet M. Guigniaut’s Religion de l’Antiquité, which states: “The death of Crishna is very differently related. One remarkable and convincing tradition makes him perish on a tree, to which he was nailed by the stroke of an arrow.7
bullet There are other references to Krishna being crucified, and being shown with holes in his feet, hands and side. 5

In the Christian Scriptures (New Testament) Yeshua’s crucifixion on a cross or stake is often referred to as being “hung on a tree:”

bullet Acts 5:30:The God of our fathers raised up Jesus…hanging him on a tree.
bullet Acts 10:39:…hanging him on a tree.”
bullet Acts 13:29:…they took him down from the tree…
bullet Galatians 3:13:Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law, having become a curse for us; for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree.”
bullet 1 Peter 2:24:…who his own self bare our sins in his body upon the tree…” (All ASV)

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Sponsored link:

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Correspondences between Hinduism and some branches of Christianity:

At least some branches of Christianity share the following beliefs with Hinduism:

bullet A future reward in heaven or punishment in Hell.
bullet Hinduism and Catholicism share the concept of Purgatory.
bullet A day of judgment.
bullet A general resurrection.
bullet The need for repentance for sin.
bullet Salvation requires faith in the Savior.
bullet A belief in angels and of evil spirits.
bullet A belief that disease and sickness is caused by evil spirits.
bullet A past war in heaven between good and bad angels.
bullet Free will.
bullet God is considered the “Word of Logos.”
bullet Their religious texts talk of “the blind leading the blind,” “a new heaven and a new earth, “living water,” “all scripture is given by inspiration of God,” “all scripture is profitable for doctrine,” “to die is great gain,” etc.
bullet Fasting.
bullet Being born again.

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Other points of similarity between Hinduism and Christianity:

bullet Symbols: The trident — traditionally carried by the Hindu God-Goddess Shiva, is somewhat similar to the Christian cross. Adding a vertical horn at both ends of the  horizontal bar of a cross will convert it into a trident with three prongs. This actually was done to a Christian cross erected by a Baptist community of 1,200 in Ranalia, India. For decades, the Baptists had annually whitewashed a cross symbol on a large rock in a hill above the town. In early 1999, someone added two horns, turning the cross into a trident. When the smoke cleared (literally) more than 150 mud huts owned by Christians had been gutted by arson. Some named the Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party as perpetrators. However, that was denied by the local head of the party. This is a very unusual event, because Hindus in India are known for their unusually high level of religious tolerance. Many Hindus believe that all religions can lead their members to God. 8
bullet The role of water: Most Christians baptize either mature members or infants in the congregation. Sometime this is done by total immersion in water; sometimes by sprinkling water over the individual’s head. In the Roman Catholic Church, baptism is a sacrament that washes away the person’s original sin. Immersion in water by Hindus is also an important ritual. “Water in Hinduism has a special place because it is believed to have spiritually cleansing powers…In the sacred water distinctions of caste are supposed to count for nothing, as all sins fall away…Every temple has a pond near it and devotees are supposed to take a bath before entering the temple.” 9

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Related essays on this web site:

bullet Do part of the gospels come from Pagan mythology?
bullet Search for the historical Jesus — WWJL (What Was Jesus Like?)
bullet Belief in the virgin birth of Jesus

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References:

  1. Kersey Graves, “The World’s Sixteen Crucified Saviors,” Adventures Unlimited Press, Chapter 32, Page 279. (1875; Reprinted 2001). Read reviews or order this book safely from Amazon.com online book store.
  2. “Festivals: Krishna Janmashtami,” at: http://www.andhratoday.com/
  3. Pagan origins of the Christ myth: Pagan Christs: Krishna,” at: http://home.earthlink.net/
  4. Fred Nojd, “Jesus – By No Means Unique,” at: http://members.attcanada.ca/
  5. Acharya S, “Suns of God: Krishna, Buddha and Christ Unveiled,” at: http://www.truthbeknown.com/
  6. Jacolliot, “The Bible in India,” Sun Publ. Co., (1992). Read reviews or order this book safely from Amazon.com online book store.
  7. M. Guigniaut, “Religion de l’Antiquité”
  8. “Shiva vs. Jesus: Hindus Burn Homes of Christians,” New York Times, 1999-MAR-23, at:http://www.churchstate.org/
  9. “Water in Religion,” The Water Page, at: http://www.thewaterpage.com/
  10. Jocelyn Rhys, “The Virgin Birth Doctrine: Details of the two Gospel stories,” (1922) at: http://www.geocities.com/
  11. Thomas Boslooper, The Virgin Birth,” S.C.M. Press, (1962), Pages 148 & 149. Cited in:  “The Virgin Birth of Christ,” at: http://www.athmaprakashini.com/
  12. “Krishna,” Wikipedia, 2007-OCT-07, at: http://en.wikipedia.org/

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Material on other websites dealing with similarities between Jesus and Krishna:

bullet “Examining the Crucifixion of Jesus and parallels to crucified sun-G-ds #3,” at:http://paganizingfaithofyeshua.netfirms.com/
bullet “Pagan Christs,” at:  http://home.earthlink.net/
bullet “Jesus Christ and Bhagavan Krishna: Original Christianity as taught by Jesus and Original Yoga as taught by Krishna; both are for the upliftment of mankind,” at: http://ompage.net/
bullet Stephen Eck, “Hare Jesus: Christianity’s Hindu Heritage, Skeptical Review, 1994, #3. Online at:http://www.infidels.org/
bullet “Krishna and Jesus: Will The Real Savior Please Stand Up?,” at: http://www.atheistalliance.org/
bullet Prithu das Adhikary, “Jesus and Krishna,” at: http://www.omjesus.com/
bullet Fred Nojd, “Jesus – By No Means Unique,” at: http://members.attcanada.ca/

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BIBLE

The Bible (Genesis 6–9) describes a worldwide flood (the Noachian Flood) covering even the highest mountains of the earth and the construction of a huge boat (a rectangular box-like craft) that transported animals, at least two of a kind of all land animals on the earth. The Qur’an (Suras 11 and 71) has almost a duplicate story with a similar huge boat that transported animals and a worldwide flood

The Bible says that the rains that created the Noachian Flood lasted for 40 days (Genesis 7:17), that the waters prevailed on the earth for 150 days (Genesis 7:24), and after these 150 days the waters gradually receded from the earth so that by the seventh month and the seventeenth day, Noah’s Ark came to rest upon the mountains of Ararat (Genesis 8:4). A year plus two months and twenty-seven days later the earth was dry enough so that Noah,his family, and the load of animals could disembark from the Ark (Genesis 8:14).

KUMARI KANDAM is submerged under water

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kumari_Kandam

Submerged lands in ancient Indian literature

Nakkeerar’s commentary does not mention the size of the territory lost to the sea. The size is first mentioned in a 15th-century commentary on Silappatikaram. The commentator Adiyarkunallar mentions that the lost land extended from Pahruli river in the north to the Kumari river in the South. It was located to the south of Kanyakumari, and covered an area of 700 kavatam (a unit of unknown measurement). It was divided into 49 territories (natu), classified in the following seven categories:[9]

  • Elu teñku natu (“Seven coconut lands”)
  • Elu Maturai natu (“Seven mango lands”)
  • Elu munpalai natu (“Seven front sandy lands”)
  • Elu pinpalai natu (“Seven back sandy lands”)
  • Elu kunra natu (“Seven hilly lands”)
  • Elu kunakarai natu (“Seven coastal lands”)
  • Elu kurumpanai natu (“Seven dwarf-palm lands”)

SO MANY THINGS RESEMBLE IN BIBLE AND IN HINDUISM

Ancient Vishnu idol found in Russian town

COW: An ancient Vishnu idol has been found during excavation in an old village in Russia’s Volga region, raising questions about the prevalent view on the origin of ancient Russia.

The idol found in Staraya (old) Maina village dates back to VII-X century AD. Staraya Maina village in Ulyanovsk region was a highly populated city 1700 years ago, much older than Kiev, so far believed to be the mother of all Russian cities.
“We may consider it incredible, but we have ground to assert that Middle-Volga region was the original land of Ancient Rus. This is a hypothesis, but a hypothesis, which requires thorough research,” Reader of Ulyanovsk State University’s archaeology department Dr Alexander Kozhevin told state-run television Vesti .

EVEN THE TUSLI KIRTAN IN BENGALI TELLS A LOT ABOUT FOLLOWERS OF LORD KRISHNA WHO WERE CONVERTED TO ISLAM IN WEST BENGAL AND BANGLADESH.

THIS ALSO TELLS MUSLIMS IN WEST BENGAL AND BANGLADESH ARE CONVERTED MUSLIMS .PEOPLE IN WEST BENGAL AND BANGLADESH  ARE HINDUS .

 

 

Dr Kozhevin, who has been conducting excavation in Staraya Maina for last seven years, said that every single square metre of the surroundings of the ancient town situated on the banks of Samara, a tributary of Volga, is studded with antiques.

 

Prior to unearthing of the Vishnu idol, Dr Kozhevin has already found ancient coins, pendants, rings and fragments of weapons.

 

He believes that today’s Staraya Maina, a town of eight thousand, was ten times more populated in the ancient times. It is from here that people started moving to the Don and Dneiper rivers around the time ancient Russy built the city of Kiev, now the capital of Ukraine.

An international conference is being organised later this year to study the legacy of the ancient village, which can radically change the history of ancient Russia.

 

Created 1.2 lakh ponds in West Bengal, says Mamata

WEST BENGAL HAS MANY PONDS IT CAN GROW MUSSELS  IN SEA AND CAN USE THESE PONDS FOR PEARL FARMING.  IT WILL HELP IN AGRICULTURE AND FARMERS WILL ALWAYS HAVE A SOURCE OF INCOME IF THERE IS LOSS IN AGRICULTURE THEY WILL BENIFIT FROM  CULTURED PEARLS.

 

Created 1.2 lakh ponds in West Bengal, says Mamata

Last Updated: Wednesday, March 25, 2015 – 21:21

Kolkata: Protecting environment and aiding livelihood, the West Bengal government has created more than 1.2 lakh ponds since coming to power, Chief Minister Mamata BanerjeeWednesday said.

In a Facebook post, Banerjee said when they came to power in May 2011, their target was to create 50,000 ponds in five years under the unique scheme ‘Jal Dharo Jal Bharo’ (Reserve and Preserve Water).

“But in less than four years upto end February 2015, one lakh twenty-one thousand ponds have been created in the state. It is not only environment and eco-friendly, but it provides livelihood through fisheries developed in these ponds and preserves water for use in dry season,” she said.

Moreover in 2014-15, irrigation potential in over 57,000 hectares of land under minor irrigation sector has been created, the chief minister said.

“Our target for 2015-16 is 62,000 hectares. This will give significant boost to agricultural productivity in the state,” she said.

http://biotechlearn.org.nz/focus_stories/farming_green_lipped_mussels/how_mussels_are_farmed_in_new_zealand

Transcript

Harvesting spat from 90 Mile Beach
Growing spat on ropes
Growing spat in hatcheries
Seeding spat
Reseeding juvenile mussels
Growing mussels on longlines
Monitoring for toxins
Harvesting
Processing
Unpredictable spat supply
Spat Resettlement
Predators
Pea Crab
Toxins
Fouling

Harvesting spat from 90 Mile Beach

Professor Andrew Jeffs (Leigh Marine Laboratory) explains that Ninety Mile Beach is the source of most juvenile mussels (spat) for New Zealand’s green-lipped mussel industry.

TRANSCRIPT

PROFESSOR ANDREW JEFFS

Mussel spat is a funny word used to describe baby mussels. So they’re tiny mussels that are usually the size of a match head or even smaller. They’re collected from two places. One is Ninety Mile Beach.

Ninety Mile Beach has a really unusual situation where there must be some very large adult populations of mussels there that produce lots of young, and those young settle on what must be large populations of seaweed in that area. And there must be storms that detach the seaweed from the seafloor, and the baby mussels together with the seaweed then wash up on the beach. So there’s spat harvesters who drive up and down the beach every day waiting for that material to wash ashore on the beach, and then they gather it up with pitchforks and put it in trailers and then they truck it off to be put out on mussel farms where it’s grown to mussels.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Professor Andrew Jeffs – Leigh Marine Laboratory, Auckland University.
NASA.
Coromandel Mussel Kitchen.
Sheree Wagener.

Certain photos in this video are the copyrighted property of 123RF Limited, their contributors or licensed partners and are being used with permission under licence. These images and/or photos may not be copied or downloaded without permission from 123RF Limited.

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Growing spat on ropes

Professor Andrew Jeffs (Leigh Marine Laboratory) explains what Christmas tree rope is and how it is used to collect mussel spat.

TRANSCRIPT

VOICEOVER

One alternative to harvesting spat from 90 Mile Beach is to dangle hairy rope – called Christmas tree rope – in the water near mussel farms.

PROFESSOR ANDREW JEFFS

They’re called Christmas tree ropes because they look a bit like Christmas tree tinsel. They have a central thread with lots of hairy fibres hanging off them, and the mussel seed which is floating in the water finds it and thinks it’s a piece of hairy seaweed and settles in it and attaches to it and sets up home there. That Christmas tree rope is then harvested and hung out on a mussel farm, and the mussels then grow up from there.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Professor Andrew Jeffs, Oliver Trottier – Leigh Marine Laboratory, Auckland University.
Just the Job, Dave Mason Productions. www.justthejob.co.nzExternal Link

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Growing spat in hatcheries

Professor Andrew Jeffs (Leigh Marine Laboratory) explains that some mussel spat is sourced from hatcheries.

TRANSCRIPT

PROFESSOR ANDREW JEFFS

The other source of mussel spat is in a hatchery, so a hatchery is a human-made system where mussels are bred, a mum and dad mussel produce egg and sperm and then the larvae, which are a little swimming seed, is raised and fed on floating plants again, until it gets to the point where its ready to settle on a piece of seaweed, and then they use Christmas tree rope in the tanks. And the baby mussels settle on that rope and then the rope’s moved out and hung out on a farm.

That’s quite an expensive process to do compared to just going and picking seaweed up off the beach which is covered in millions and millions of mussel spat.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
SpatNZ.
Mass Audubon Joppa Flats Education Center, Massachusetts – www.massaudubon.org/joppaflatsExternal Link.
Professor Andrew Jeffs – Leigh Marine Laboratory, Auckland University.

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Seeding spat

Professor Andrew Jeffs (Leigh Marine Laboratory) describes how spat are attached to mussock – a biodegradable cotton stocking – for growth on mussel farms.

TRANSCRIPT

PROFESSOR ANDREW JEFFS

Once the spat is collected off the beach, it’s normally chilled and put in bags and then put in a chilled truck like an ice-cream truck and taken to the farm usually within 24 hours. It’s put on a mussel barge which goes out onto the farm, and the seaweed, which is covered in spat, is forced down a tube with a rope going down it and into some cotton stocking, which is called mussock.

And that stocking holds the seaweed with the mussel spat on it against the rope and then that’s hung on floats on the surface and the mussel attaches to the rope, and the stocking’s made of cotton so it rots in the sea over a couple of weeks. And so you’re left with a rope that’s completely coated with baby mussels.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Professor Andrew Jeffs – Leigh Marine Laboratory, Auckland University.
Sheree Wagener.
Just the Job, Dave Mason Productions. www.justthejob.co.nzExternal Link

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Reseeding juvenile mussels

Professor Andrew Jeffs (Leigh Marine Laboratory) explains why juvenile mussels must be reseeded onto new rope after approximately 6 months’ growth.

TRANSCRIPT

PROFESSOR ANDREW JEFFS

The spat spends about 6–8 months on the nursery line, and by that time, there’s just so many mussels on that line and they’re getting bigger and bigger and growing very, very quickly at that age.

And the more they grow, they start pushing each other off the line and they start dropping off the line. So the mussel farmer will take those lines out of the water and drag them through a steel ring which pulls the mussels off the rope and then will seed those mussels back onto another rope but at lower numbers, so to space them out a bit more, so the mussels are reseeded to give them enough space to grow up to a bigger size.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Professor Andrew Jeffs, Oliver Trottier – Leigh Marine Laboratory, Auckland University.
Just the Job, Dave Mason Productions. www.justthejob.co.nzExternal Link

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Growing mussels on longlines

Professor Andrew Jeffs (Leigh Marine Laboratory) describes the Japanese longline system, which is used to farm virtually all of New Zealand’s green-lipped mussels.

TRANSCRIPT

PROFESSOR ANDREW JEFFS

The Japanese longline system for farming mussels involves a series of large plastic floats on the surface, with two lines running between them joining them up, in a line along the surface of the water, with an anchor on either end.

The mussel lines then are suspended from the ropes that run along the surface between the floats and so they hang down in the water column, so it gives a huge length of rope going up and down covered in mussels growing underneath the farm. One of the issues for a mussel farmer is making sure that they have enough floats, so as the mussels grow, the farmers often have to add more floats to keep the weight of mussels held up in the water column.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Professor Andrew Jeffs, Oliver Trottier – Leigh Marine Laboratory, Auckland University.
Just the Job, Dave Mason Productions. www.justthejob.co.nzExternal Link

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Monitoring for toxins

Professor Andrew Jeffs (Leigh Marine Laboratory) describes how mussels and the water they grow in are rigorously tested before harvest for toxins and algal bloom, respectively.

TRANSCRIPT

PROFESSOR ANDREW JEFFS

To ensure that mussels don’t contain toxins there’s an incredibly strict monitoring programme in place that took a number of years to develop. There’s a number of aspects to it. One is those tiny floating plants in the water that produce toxins. We know what they are, so you can sample the water and have a look for those to see whether they’re present.

There’s also a rigorous testing programme with the mussels themselves. Before they can be sent off to market, they have to be tested to make sure they don’t contain any of the toxins,

So it’s a two-part process – one gives you an early warning sign, the other one guarantees human food safety that mussels that are going to cause human health issues aren’t being sent to market, and that’s absolutely critical in terms of having an industry that people can trust.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Paul McNabb, Cawthron Institute.
NASA.
Professor Andrew Jeffs – Leigh Marine Laboratory, Auckland University.

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Harvesting

Professor Andrew Jeffs (Leigh Marine Laboratory) explains how green-lipped mussels are harvested.

TRANSCRIPT

PROFESSOR ANDREW JEFFS

Mussels are harvested from a farm by pulling a barge up alongside the farm. The ropes are cut off from the lines holding them in the water, and they’re pulled through a steel ring, and the mussels let go.

They’re tumbled and washed at the same time to get some of that fouling material out, to get some of the accumulated silt that often accumulates on the mussels. And then they’re put on a conveyor belt and then dropped into a bag, and that bag is then ready to be handled by a crane off onto the wharf once the barge gets back to the wharf.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Professor Andrew Jeffs – Leigh Marine Laboratory, Auckland University.

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Processing

Professor Andrew Jeffs (Leigh Marine Laboratory) describes the key steps in post-harvest processing of green-lipped mussels.

TRANSCRIPT

PROFESSOR ANDREW JEFFS

Most processing factories for mussels in New Zealand, the mussels are brought in, they’re inspected to make sure they’re clean. Any broken mussels get removed, and only the clean good-quality mussels are then sent through to processing.

Normally, they’re lightly cooked usually with a steaming, and that’s just enough open up the mussels so that one of the shells can be removed. They are then put through what’s called a de-bearder. Mussels extrude threads which they use to cling onto ropes or onto the rocks in the wild, and the de-bearder just basically removes those threads because they’re not very nice to eat, in fact, you can’t eat them. The mussels are then sent through a freezing plant where they are snap frozen quickly to preserve the goodness and to make sure they’re good quality.

So typically in a mussel plant, there’s testing along the way to make sure that the quality standards are maintained.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Professor Andrew Jeffs, Oliver Trottier – Leigh Marine Laboratory, Auckland University.
NIWA.
Just the Job, Dave Mason Productions. www.justthejob.co.nzExternal Link

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Unpredictable spat supply

Professor Andrew Jeffs (Leigh Marine Laboratory) describes the unpredictable nature of the spat supply from Ninety Mile Beach.

TRANSCRIPT

PROFESSOR ANDREW JEFFS

The spat fall on Ninety Mile Beach is quite unpredictable. There’s a general pattern – it generally turns up between August and the end of December and sometimes a secondary supply in January, February, March, but it varies from year to year, and the volume varies enormously.

Also the quality varies enormously as well. Sometimes the seed mussels that come in are well fed, and once they’re put on the farm, they grow very quickly. Other times, they’re in poor condition, and a large proportion of them die or they get eaten or they swim off before they have a chance to grow up.

The spat fall is absolutely critical to the industry. We’ve got an over $200 million industry that relies on that wild seed supply, and so having a continual supply of spat there arriving is absolutely critical. So there have been periods of almost a year where there’s been no spat available at all and it’s caused a major problem for the mussel industry. And in those times, the industry has shown a huge interest in developing hatchery systems and getting them up and running and trying to produce spat through those alternative methods.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Sheree Wagener.
Professor Andrew Jeffs, Oliver Trottier – Leigh Marine Laboratory, Auckland University.
Just the Job, Dave Mason Productions. www.justthejob.co.nzExternal Link

Certain photos in this video are the copyrighted property of 123RF Limited, their contributors or licensed partners and are being used with permission under licence. These images and/or photos may not be copied or downloaded without permission from 123RF Limited.

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Spat Resettlement

Professor Andrew Jeffs (Leigh Marine Laboratory) explains that spat are prone to moving from their original site of settlement and why this can cause problems for mussel farmers.

TRANSCRIPT

PROFESSOR ANDREW JEFFS

Mussel spat’s quite unusual from a biological point of view. When they first settle, there’s a swimming seed, which is looking for seaweed to settle on and it settles on the seaweed. If it doesn’t like it, it will actually put out a long thread of snot. Basically mucus which gets caught in the current and then it will let go of the seaweed and then it will use that thread like a parachute to drift off and find somewhere else that’s better for it to set up shop. So if you put mussel seed onto a farm and there isn’t enough food in the water or the mussel was already in poor condition before it got there they’ll quite often put out a parachute and they’ll sail off, sometimes that can take out 90, 95% of your seed mussels.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Professor Andrew Jeffs, Oliver Trottier – Leigh Marine Laboratory, Auckland University.

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Predators

Professor Andrew Jeffs (Leigh Marine Laboratory) describes the major predators of New Zealand’s farmed green-lipped mussels.

TRANSCRIPT

PROFESSOR ANDREW JEFFS

Mussels are out hanging in the water column, and they’re vulnerable to things coming and eating them.

Probably one of the worst predators for early mussels is fish, especially snapper and spotties – they come and bite, bite and eat the mussels, the baby mussels off the farm. Sometimes you get starfish setting up home on mussel farms, and they’ve got strong arms, and they can pull the mussel shells open and eat the mussels.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Professor Andrew Jeffs, Oliver Trottier – Leigh Marine Laboratory, Auckland University.
The Shape of Life. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/External Link

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Pea Crab

The New Zealand pea crab is a parasite of green-lipped mussels. Professor Andrew Jeffs (Leigh Marine Laboratory) describes how the pea crab causes problems for mussel farmers.

TRANSCRIPT

PROFESSOR ANDREW JEFFS

So it sets up home inside the mussel and starts stealing that food that the mussel’s been gathering so diligently. The pea crab steps in there and grabs the meal before the mussel gets a chance to eat it. So that reduces the productivity of the mussel, and it also causes problems in terms of quality, because the last thing a consumer on the other side of the world who’s paid a lot of money to buy a high-quality farmed mussel from New Zealand wants to do is to bite into a crunchy crab in the middle of their meal.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Professor Andrew Jeffs and Oliver Trottier – Leigh Marine Laboratory, Auckland University.

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Toxins

Professor Andrew Jeffs (Leigh Marine Laboratory) explains why mussels are susceptible to accumulating toxins.

TRANSCRIPT

PROFESSOR ANDREW JEFFS

There’s a number of types of phytoplankton, those are the tiny floating plants, which produce poisons or toxins. They probably produce them as a way of protecting themselves from fish and what have you from eating them. And so the mussels, because they filter such large numbers of those plants, they accumulate the poisons inside their bodies, and so that accumulated poison then becomes an issue for someone then going and eating a mussel, because there’s a larger volume of poison there which can start to cause problems.

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Fouling

Professor Andrew Jeffs (Leigh Marine Laboratory) explains how unwanted organisms can foul mussel lines.

TRANSCRIPT

PROFESSOR ANDREW JEFFS

The presence of what we call fouling organisms, things like seaweeds and barnacles and sea squirts, on the mussels when they’re harvested causes quite a bit of a problem, because when they come in, you get a lot of other material mixed in with the mussels. Things like sea squirts in particular start rotting quite quickly and so that has the potential to cause spoilage.

Also the industry has been incredibly innovative and developed systems for opening mussels. And if you have a lot of barnacles on the outside of shells then it causes problems for some of those highly advanced systems for processing mussels.

There’s a machine which uses guided suction cups which sucker onto the outside of the shells and open the mussels. Well, if you’ve got barnacles on there, the suction cups can’t suck because there’s barnacles stuck underneath them.

The other issue with barnacles is our mussels have a beautiful green shell, and if they’re covered in barnacles, they don’t look as inviting as they do when they’re just that beautiful polished green jade colour.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Professor Andrew Jeffs Oliver Trottier – Leigh Marine Laboratory, Auckland University.
Penny White.
Happy Aston.
NIWA.

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From Sock to Pot: How to Grow Mussels

General Post


Photo: Canadian Cove

Why do mussels get fatter in winter months? How come some mussels are light orange and some dark? Can mussels move or do they stay put after settling on a piling? We learned the answers to these questions and more, when Michael Mussig and Michael Ferguson from Canadian Cove stopped by the office. Canadian Cove is the premier Prince Edward Island mussel grower, and the Mikes dropped in to chat about mussels, the farming process, and to cook up some samples for us to try.

As it turns out, you can start your own adventure in mussel farming with nothing more than a frayed rope. In late spring, mussels naturally begin spawning as water temperatures rise. To catch the mussel larvae, farmers put long collector lines in the water. This can be as simple as an old rope held afloat by buoys. The mussels float in the water until they settle down on the rope’s surface.

By fall, the mussels have grown to about half the length of your thumb, and are ready to be collected for socking. No, this has nothing to do with punching the mussels! It actually refers to the long mesh tubes that the mussels will placed inside, somewhat akin to a sock. The mussels are roughly sorted into similar sizes before being placed in the socks. This helps maintain uniform shell sizes because the smaller mussels aren’t competing against their larger brothers. Then the mussels are stuffed into the sock, the same way you would fill a sausage casing. Though the mussels are on the inside of the sock now, over the next few months, they will gradually move to the outside of the sock in their continuing quest for food and nutrients. That’s right, mussels can move through their “beards” or byssal threads, which are sticky filaments secreted to help the mussel cling to objects. By attaching a thread to an anchor, then shortening the thread, a mussel can slowly move toward an object.

As the mussels move outwards, the sock will collapse into a thin rope in the center of the mussel column. Canadian Cove spaces their mussel lines out further than usual so that the mussels grow quickly and uniformly. Since the mussels are cultivated on ropes rather than on the ocean bottom, they have clean, unmuddied flavors and a firm texture that is free of grit. The waters surrounding Prince Edward Island are some of the cleanest in the world, and you can certainly taste it in these robust mussel meats.


Photo: Canadian Cove

After about two years in the water, the mussels are harvested. Around this time of the year, mussels are at their peak, becoming sweeter and plumper as they prepare for winter. But what happens if there’s ice on the water? Knowing that some oyster farmers close up shop when the water freezes over, we asked how Canadian Cove kept up with the year-round demand for mussels. It turns out that they have a number of open water leases that are deep enough that they don’t freeze in winter, and in some areas they have divers who can ice harvest.

Once the mussels have been harvested, they are gently washed, graded and debearded. You may have heard that debearding shortens the shelf life of mussels. This is generally true if you yank the mussel’s beard out, but modern processing equipment pinches off the beards rather than pulling them out forcefully, so the mussel remains healthy and untraumatized. The mussels are stored for a short period in saltwater storage tanks with air bubbled through them, which gives them a chance to recuperate from being harvested. Then these ambassadors for PEI are packed into bags and eventually make their way to a steaming pot near you.

When you purchase mussels, the shells should look moist and they should not smell strongly fishy or unpleasant. After you bring them home, they should be stored in the coldest part of your refrigerator, covered by a damp towel. Canadian Cove’s mussels are pot ready, so all you need to do prior to cooking is to give them a quick rinse. If there are any open mussels, give them a tap on the shell and throw out any mussels that do not close.

If you’ve ever inspected a pot of mussels before, you may have noticed that some are a creamy shade of light orange, while others are a more vibrant dark orange. The color difference is how you can tell female from male mussels: the females are more colorful, “like women with make-up,” quipped Mussig.

We enjoyed the mussels steamed with a splash of white wine, a knob of butter, some Thai sweet chili sauce, and a sprinkle of cilantro and red onion. However, they would have been delicious with many other accoutrements, or even just steamed alone without any additional ingredients. For inspiration, you can check out our recipe forcreamy mussels with blue cheese, or simply look around your kitchen tonight and see what catches your eye.

 

INDIAN PAINTERS CAN PROMOTE JUTE PAINTINGS AND OTHER JUTE PRODUCTS TO STOP DEFORESTATION

Paper comes from tree fibers, either from the growing forests or recovered paper. Global deforestation and forest degradation are problems of a global scale.

Now growing jute plant is easy compared  to get  paper from tree fibre  Jute is harvested any time between 120 days to 150 days when the flowers have been shed, early harvesting gives good healthy fibers.

INDIAN PAINTERS CAN PROMOTE A MESSAGE TO STOP DEFORESTATION THROUGH PAINTINGS ON JUTE PAPER.

WEST BENGAL GOVT SHOULD PROMOTE JUTE PAINTINGS THROUGH THESE PAINTERS BY ARRANGING PAINTING EXHIBITIONS .

THIS WILL  GIVE A CLEAR MESSAGE TO SAVE TREES AND TO STOP POLLUTION IN CITIES AND TOWNS IN INDIA.

PAINTERS CAN PROMOTE THE FEATURES OF JUTE TO STOP DEFORESTATION

  • Jute fiber is 100% bio-degradable and recyclable and thus environmentally friendly.
  • Jute has low pesticide and fertilizer needs.
  • It is a natural fiber with golden and silky shine and hence called The Golden Fiber.
  • It is the cheapest vegetable fiber procured from the bast or skin of the plant’s stem.
  • It is the second most important vegetable fiber after cotton, in terms of usage, global consumption, production, and availability.
  • It has high tensile strength, low extensibility, and ensures better breathability of fabrics. Therefore, jute is very suitable in agricultural commodity bulk packaging.
  • It helps to make best quality industrial yarn, fabric, net, and sacks. It is one of the most versatile natural fibers that has been used in raw materials for packaging, textiles, non-textile, construction, and agricultural sectors. Bulking of yarn results in a reduced breaking tenacity and an increased breaking extensibility when blended as a ternary blend.
  • The best source of jute in the world is the Bengal Delta Plain in the Ganges Delta, most of which is occupied by Bangladesh.
  • Advantages of jute include good insulating and antistatic properties, as well as having low thermal conductivity and a moderate moisture regain. Other advantages of jute include acoustic insulating properties and manufacture with no skin irritations.
  • Jute has the ability to be blended with other fibers, both synthetic and natural, and accepts cellulosic dye classes such as natural, basic, vat, sulfur, reactive, andpigment dyes. As the demand for natural comfort fibers increases, the demand for jute and other natural fibers that can be blended with cotton will increase. To meet this demand, some manufactures in the natural fiber industry plan to modernize processing with the Rieter‘s Elitex system. The resulting jute/cotton yarns will produce fabrics with a reduced cost of wet processing treatments. Jute can also be blended with wool. By treating jute with caustic soda, crimp, softness, pliability, and appearance is improved, aiding in its ability to be spun with wool. Liquid ammonia has a similar effect on jute, as well as the added characteristic of improving flame resistance when treated with flameproofing agents.

 

USE OF JUTE PRODUCTS WILL SAVE ECOSYSTEM.Ecosystem services are vital. Wherever forests are found, they provide carbon sequestration, protection against floods, landslides and soil erosion, as well as harboring a rich bio-diversity of plants and animals.

THIS IS THE MESSAGE PAINTERS SHOULD GIVE TO SAVE OUR ECOSYSTEM.

THERE ARE SO MANY WEBSITES IN INDIA FOR PAINTERS .

http://www.indiaart.com/

http://www.indianartcollectors.com/artists

http://www.indianmasterpainters.com/

 

https://www.google.co.in/?gfe_rd=cr&ei=e652Vu2pJabR8AfkxIfgDQ#q=painters+of+india

 

THE AMAZON RAINFOREST is the largest rainforest in the world.
It extends for 3,000 mi (4,828 km) from the ANDES mountains to the ATLANTIC OCEAN.

INDIA NEEDS TO CONSERVE MORE FORESTS WITH THE USE OF JUTE PRODUCTS.

Plant Potatoes in Bags of Burlap Above Ground from Home Grown Fun

 

plants grown in jute bags

https://www.google.co.in/search?q=plants+grown+in+jute+bags&biw=1517&bih=741&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&sqi=2&ved=0ahUKEwiiu_rV1erJAhVLcY4KHZ3XD7MQ_AUIBigB&dpr=0.9

http://www.homegrownfun.com/grow-potatoes-recyled-coffee-sacks/

 

 

How to Grow Potatoes in Recyled Coffee Sacks

The Great Tater Experiment

In Southern California, the soil is less than ideal for growing vegetables. For this reason, 90% of all my edibles are grown in raised beds or burlap sacks.

Recycled Coffee Sacks

I scrounge coffee grounds from the local java joint and add them to my garden. It dawned on me that coffee sacks are bigger than my pant legs, stronger, biodegradable and don’t look as weird. To me, the word ‘biodegradable’ also means no commitment.

I got my hands on a few used sacks and found they had many benefits over other container methods. Old tires were out of the question for both aesthetic and environmental issues, and having another large plastic garbage can to look at in the backyard was also a no-go. The newer polypropylene grow bags are neat but they still look like garbage bags to me.

I learned a few things about growing potatoes from trial and error and one of the keys is to mound up the soil after the stems grow several inches. This produces more potatoes because taters sprout and sprawl from the stem of the plant, not the roots. So the best containers for potatoes are tall, hence the stacking tire method that many folks use.

Jute is Cool

A jute bag can be plunked down anywhere – on a balcony, patio or garden bed. It looks natural and doesn’t stick out like a sore thumb. The material is woven so drainage holes come standard. Air flow and rot prevention are built in. It’s great to reuse something that already looks earthy.

If your sack once held coffee beans and has any kind of logo or print on it, it might even look cool next to your patio seating or flanking a bench. 

Biodegradable

A coffee sack will stay together for at least a couple of seasons. The natural fibers eventually break down and many gardeners lay them flat on the ground after use for weed control or as a mulch.

To inspire others to grow their own potatoes I put together a kit for my farmers market booth. It had three kinds of organic, gourmet potato seed plus a recycled coffee sack and easy instructions. Below are the instructions so you can do this yourself if you already have access to the potatoes and a suitable container or garden bed.

3 Easy Steps for Growing Potatoes in a Sack Above Ground

You will need: A recycled sack, seed potatoes and garden soil.

On potatoes purchased at the store: I have used organic potatoes from the store that have not been sprayed with a growth hormone to prevent sprouting. Certified seed potatoes are disease and pest free, and will probably give you a bigger harvest. 

When to Plant: You can plant your seeds in the fall if you don’t get hard frost in the winter. Many folks in Southern California start potatoes in November! If you live in USDA Zones 1-7, recommend waiting until early spring to plant. As with any seed, results will vary depending on growing conditions and level of care.

Storing your Seed Potatoes Until Planting: If you cannot plant right away, store your seed in a cool, dark spot where the potatoes won’t dry out or freeze. Ideally, you would plant 1-2 weeks after you receive the seed. Keep each potato individually and loosely wrapped. Ideal temperature range is 35 to 45 degrees F. A garage, basement or unheated closet works well.

About Chitting: If you want to encourage your potatoes to sprout before planting, you can “chit” them. You sit them with eyes up in a cool place with some light and wait. Don’t let them touch each other. An egg carton is a perfect chitting tool. I don’t chit and I’m not a closet chitter. I’m just lazy and plant the potatoes without going through any pre-sprouting rituals. If you are into chitting, let them eye-out 2- weeks before planting and plant sprouts up toward the sky.

Step 1: Prepare the Sack

Add soil: Roll the edges of your sack down over the outside of the bag to make a very short bag about 4-6 inches high. Tuck in the bottom corners of the bag (optional) to improve stability of the sack and to conserve soil. Fill your sack with approximately 4-5” of loose soil. Potatoes can grow in a variety of soils – rich, sandy – even straw. Heavy clay soil may not be the best choice. If you want to fertilize the soil, do it now.

STEP 2:Plant the Potatoes 

Prepare the potatoes: If a seed potato is large (more than 2.5” long) and has more than one eye, you can cut the potato into 1-2 inch sections (keeping an eye on each section). You’ll plant only 3-4 pieces in the sack. If your potato is small (1-2 inches), don’t bother cutting it into sections.Plant any extra seed in another container!

Some folks insist on waiting a day after cutting so that the cut area gets a chance to callous over. This is supposed to prevent rot. I don’t wait – I just plant it but if you are concerned about rot you can delay planting for a day. Do not let the seed potato dry up.

Plant the potatoes: Place the potatoes on top of the soil, eyes/sprouts pointing up toward the sky. Again, plant the seed at least 6 inches apart.

STEP 3:Cover the Potatoes – Then Mound Up Later

Cover: Top your potato seed with 4”-6” of loose soil.

Mound up the soil: Once the leafy plants push through the soil (2-4 weeks) and the green tops grow more than about 8” tall, mound up the soil around the plant to promote growth of more potatoes under the mound. Leave some of the leafy vine above the soil (4-6″). Mounding Up is one of the secrets to getting a larger harvest!

Watering and Fertilizing: Keep moist at all times but don’t over-water (to prevent rot). Shelter the bag if you have excessive amounts of continuous rain. Don’t let your sack dry out. Soil amendments added when “mounding up” may increase your harvest and improve plant health. We use a combination of compost, worm castings and kelp brewed into a compost tea.

Harvest! After approximately 80-100 days, the plant will stop flowering and you’ll see signs that it’s starting to die (turns yellow or brown and withers). Wait 2 more weeks after the plant shows these signs and then try to harvest! Waiting allows the skin of the potato to set. Dump the sack over or carefully dig the potatoes up as you need them. YUM! If you harvest them all at the same time, store as you would other potatoes, in a cool, dark spot where they won’t dry out.

 

 

 

DELHI GOVT SHOULD ALSO BRING A VERY STRONG POLICY TO REPLACE PAPER AND PLASTIC WITH JUTE PRODUCTS (FOR CLIMATE CHANGE)

WHY DELHI GOVT CANT A SIMPLY POLICY TO CURB POLLUTION .ISNT CURBING POLLUTION IN DELHI VERY SIMPLE WITH REPLACING MANY PRODUCTS WITH JUTE

 

JUTE PRODUCTS ARE ALTERNATIVE TO PLASTIC AND PAPER.

CITIES LIKE DELHI SHOULD TRY TO REDUCE THE USE OF PAPER MADE PRODUCTS BY REPLACING THEM WITH JUTE.

JUTE IS A ALTERNATIVE TO STOP POLLUTION IN DELHI.  JUTE PRODUCTS CAN REPLACE SWEETS BOXES TO SHOPPING BAGS .

JUTE CAN BE EASILY USED FOR GROWING PLANTS ITS EASY FOR DELHI TO MAKE USE OF JUTE FOR SMALL VEGETABLE GARDENS IN HOMES.

jute-bag-for-plant

http://www.handcraft.co.in/garden-bags/385-jute-bag-for-plant-002.html

 

http://www.homegrownfun.com/burlap-sacks-in-garden-grow-vegetables-in-bags/

A versatile material in the garden, burlap is used to wrap tree and shrub roots, mulch growing beds, protect newly planted seeds. 

I love adding strips of it to my worm bin. Red wigglers will devour the jute cloth along with the food scraps as they weave in and out of the fibers.

I’m not sewing a stitch or covering plastic containers. My approach is more organic, free-form and natural looking. Once you view these ideas, you may dream up your own ways to use burlap that suits your lifestyle and surroundings.

Burlap is made from the jute plant. Jute comes from the outer skin of the jute plant grown in places that get lots of rain, parts of India for example. The jute plant only takes 4-5 months to reach maturity so it’s a smart choice for a renewable, sustainable material.  It’s second to cotton in terms of production volume of a natural fiber worldwide – like cotton, it can be used in many industries and applications.

To use burlap sacks, place the bags directly on the ground, as a rectangle, horizontal tube or upright with rolled edges. If you have a patio, some kind of barrier between the bag and wood, stone or cement would work well to prevent staining. Vertical gardening is a wonderful concept although gravity is working a bit against us here with soil inside and so keeping the bags from falling over requires some support – you could use wire fencing or do what I do and group bags together so they can support each other. This especially works well when growing potatoes in burlap bags. I have another video that provides you the details and some fun on growing spuds in sacks – when you get a chance, maybe take a look at that one too.

There are several reasons why plants grow well in burlap. Aeration: the weave of the fibers make it easy for air to circulate unlike plastic or clay. The burlap retains moisture but at the same time let’s water flow through much better than many containers. I like burlap because it’s lightweight. I’ve made planting beds out of retaining wall, wood and rocks and as long as my planting areas don’t look junky, I’m fine with the less permanent look. I like to experiment and switch things up every once in a while anyway so this approach fits my personality as well.

I’ve tested a lot of plants out using burlap sacks and here are my favorites:

Strawberries, they love to be mounded and aeration is important. Our strawberries look really healthy when grown in sacks and produce a good crop.

Herbs look so natural in burlap and it makes me feel like I’ve created an herb garden that meshes well with its surroundings. Burlap provides a neutral color that lets the herbs take center stage.

Lettuce works well because the soil depth doesn’t need to be very deep for lettuce, arugula and spinach. I do start the seeds inside or in small containers first, or buy starts and transplant them into areas of the bag by cutting slits spaced apart.

List of all the plants I’ve grown in burlap and had success:

  1. Arugula
  2. Basil
  3. Borage
  4. Cabbage
  5. Chamomile
  6. Chives
  7. Cilantro
  8. Cucumbers
  9. Lettuce
  10. Oregano
  11. Peppers
  12. Parsley
  13. Peas
  14. Potatoes
  15. Rosemary
  16. Spinach
  17. Swiss Chard
  18. Tarragon
  19. Thyme
  20. Tomatoes

Paralysis by Plastic Plagues Delhi’s Ecosystem

Published: 24th May 2015 06:00:00 AM

NEW DELHI:It’s not just cows, but the entire Delhi is gagging on these weapons of mass destruction. A city of 1.82 crore people generates a staggering 690 tonnes of plastic waste every day of which over 40 per cent go recycled. Civic authorities say the daily addition to the waste is 276 tonnes. A huge portion ends up in landfills and the rest clogs the city’s roads, drains and the Yamuna River causing untold damage to the pollution-infected population’s health. Plastic clogs the earth of Delhi’s fragile green belt and parks that are already under siege from land grabbers and squatters, stopping the free flow of water, which in turn stunts vegetation growth and in some cases even destroys it completely. Plastic waste also encourages the mushrooming of illegal recycling units, which send the banned items to wholesale markets from where they find their way to pavement hawkers, small shopkeepers, chemists and even big establishments. A large slum population and irresponsible residents discard plastic bags and tetra packs, which choke the drains and have turned the Yamuna banks into “layers and layers of plastic wastes” as an ecologist puts it, where thousands of tonnes of plastic can be found any day.

TONNES OF TOXIN: Delhi generates 2,51,850 tonnes of plastic waste every year of which 1,00,740 tonnes are lying on roads, inside drains, in parks, the green belts and the Yamuna, according to a Plastic Waste Management report prepared by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). A concerned Union Environment Minister, Prakash Javadekar pulled up state authorities for not strictly implementing the rules on plastic waste management and enforcing the ban of plastic carry bags. In the last session of Parliament, the minister said the government will set up surveillance squads with the power to levy spot fines on manufacturers of plastic bags that are below 40 microns—the permissible thickness of biodegradable matter. Plastic is not digestible matter, so a part of it comes out in cow dung and is consumed by birds and animals, causing more deaths. Medical experts say that the exposure of children to chemicals used in manufacturing of plastic packages, and chewing of plastic teethers and toys can cause cancer, damage the immune system and hinder development. Apart from littering, the burning of plastic waste in public spaces poisons the already toxic atmosphere of the capital where, according to the Centre for Science and Environment, one air-pollution-related death happens every hour. Contact with food substances stored in plastic containers and bags cause the chemicals in them to be absorbed by human bodies, causing hormonal and other health perils. Floating plastic waste, as found in the Yamuna, can survive for thousands of years in water, transports alien invasive species, disrupting habitats. Plastic buried in landfills cause harmful chemicals to be released into the city’s groundwater. The Delhi Health Department, informed about groundwater poisoning deaths in Greater Noida, is investigating deaths caused by stomach cancer, eczema, hepatitis and liver disorders. Delhi’s drains choked with plastic bags filled with rainwater become breeding grounds for mosquitoes, which cause dengue and malaria. MCD spokesperson Y S Mann said that during the rains, sanitation workers find 70 per cent of drains are closed due to plastic waste, stopping the flow of silt and water. Civic authorities estimate that by 2021, seven lakh tonnes of un-recyclable plastic waste will choke the city. “The drains will be filled with plastic. The 22km stretch of the Yamuna riverbanks in the capital are already covered by layers and layers of plastic waste and 10 years down, the river will turn dry and vanish in Delhi,” Manoj Misra convener of Yamuna Jiye Abhiyaan, an NGO, told The Sunday Standard. Marine fish life in Yamuna is almost extinct and a large cause of this is consumption of discarded plastic by marine life.

AGENCY APATHY: Despite a complete plastic ban in the city, the state government agencies seem least concerned. Not a single shopkeeper has been fined so far for using plastic bags. On October 23, 2012, the Delhi government imposed a blanket ban on manufacturing, use and sale of plastic bags after they found that they “caused blockage of gutters, sewerage system and drains”, resulting in serious “environmental and public heath-related problems”. The only exception permitted is the use of plastic specified under the Bio-medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998 for packaging food products, milk, cooking oil, flour and plastic cups used by tea vendors. Immediately after the ban, the All India Plastic Industries Association challenged the government notification in Delhi High Court. In December 2012, the HC stayed the ban, taking on record an undertaking by Delhi Pollution Control Committee that it won’t book plastic manufacturers and traders till the petition is still before the court. “The matter is still pending with the HC and therefore no implementation as on date,” said Kulanad Joshi, Additional Secretary, Delhi’s Department of Environment.

So far, only the Delhi Cantonment Board had challaned 22 people for violating the rule. As far as the state government is concerned, it’s a different story. “In Delhi, there is no mechanism to implement the plastic ban as there is absolute lack of coordination between different government agencies,” says RTI activist Jagjit Singh Walia.

RAMPANT VIOLATIONS: To tackle the menace, Delhi’s environmentalists approached National Green Tribunal. Taking a strong stance, it passed an order in March, stating that anyone throwing puja material in plastic bags into the Yamuna will be fined Rs 5,000. It also restrained individuals, including municipal corporation employees, from throwing or dumping any kind of waste in the drains and ordered a fine of Rs 5,000 for violating its directions. In another order, the tribunal banned the burning of waste, dry leaves or plastic in the open and imposed a Rs 5,000 fine for violators. This is responsible for nearly 30 per cent of the air pollution in the city. “Burning plastics emit harmful quantities of dioxins and furans, which can cause cancer, impotence, asthma and a myriad other allergies to human beings,” said Priti Mahesh, chief project coordinator of Toxic Link, an environment NGO. Residents of Okhla have filed court cases against the waste-to-energy (WTE) plant established there, citing rise in pollution and toxins being released into the atmosphere due to waste incineration to generate just 16 MW of power. With two more WTE plants coming up, the total waste that will be incinerated per day will rise to 7,500 tonnes.

After the NGT order, Deputy CM Manish Sisodia on Friday expressed concern that the municipal corporations that cover the majority of Delhi have not made any serious effort to prevent the burning of plastic. He reminded all the municipal corporations and other local bodies to display helpline numbers for the public to lodge complaints about burning of material in open.

DELHI DISASTER: The number of households in Delhi is estimated as 42.98 lakh, of which 0.86 lakh live in the rural outskirts and 42.12 lakh in the urban areas. On an average, each household generates 0.5 kg of solid waste daily, which amounts to 2,146 tonnes per day. The rest of waste is generated from commercial and industrial units. Five municipal bodies are responsible for solid waste generation and management. The three municipal corporations cover 96 per cent of Delhi, which approximately comes to 1399.26 sq km. The rest comes under the New Delhi Municipal Council and the Delhi Cantonment Board. Even with 65,000 safai kamarcharis on the roll, MCD is unable to clean and collect garbage.  They have involved various private players to carry out garbage collection, but to little advantage.

In Delhi, there are four landfill sites at Bhalswa, Ghazipur, Okhla and Narela-Bawana Road, of which three are filled beyond capacity. “The corporation finds it difficult to segregate waste despite running several awareness programmes. We tried to control plastic waste at sources but people do not respond. We have roped in private players for this task,” Mann said.

VICIOUS CYCLE: Delhi’s ragpickers are key players in the plastic game. There are around one lakh of them, constituting men, women and children. Each of them collect 50 kg of waste every day, reducing the load of government agencies by 1,200-1,500 tonnes. “They gather waste from garbage dumps, the streets or landfills and sell the sorted waste,” says Mahesh.

The waste is sold to small traders, who in turn sell it to kabaddiwalas. The kabaddiwalas sell plastic waste to a dealer. He uses dismantlers to separate different plastic resins before selling them, since segregated plastic fetches a better price. Then come the recyclers and recycling units where workers separate different types of plastic, which is recycled. In 2013, the municipal corporation came up with a proposal to form an association of ragpickers to generate employment. “They would be given charge to maintain public toilets as well as have the opportunity to collect garbage directly from households, and segregate plastic from bio-degradable waste,” said Mann. The proposal is yet to be finalised.

Delhi is the largest recycling hub in India, and one of the largest in the world, with waste flowing in from all parts of the country and from outside India as well.

ILLEGAL SPREAD: The plastic waste trade and processing units are widely spread across Delhi. Plastic processing units are spread across Mundka, Narela, Tikri Kalan, Kirti Nagar, Shahadra and Bawana, which have more than 10,000 plastic scrap hubs. In Mundka itself more than 4,000 units spread across four km are engaged in sorting, cleaning, trading and processing of the waste. Only around 180 registered plastic recycling units in Delhi have been given licenses by the Pollution Control Committee. The rest function in key locations where plastic scrap pre-processing and processing operations take place such as Kirti  Nagar, Mayapuri Industrial Area, Inderlok, Karawal Nagar,  Patpargunj, Udyog Nagar, Okhla. There are around 500 units in these areas, mainly engaged in pellet making and moulding.

Plastic is sold openly in Sadar Bazaar Market, one of the largest wholesale markets for plastic bags. A small lane named Bahadurgarh Road has more than 100 shops where all kinds of plastic bags are sold in wholesale.

“We can’t impose a complete ban on plastic usage. But it can be regulated. Solid waste management and segregation of plastic from solid waste should be properly implemented by government agencies as well,” added Mahesh.

THERE ARE ALTERNATE WAYS TO REDUCE DEFORESTATION

http://www.theworldcounts.com/stories/deforestation-facts-and-statistics

Why Deforestation Hurts

 

Deforestation is when trees are chopped down to clear a forest so the land can be used for other purposes. The trees can eventually grow back, but at the rate we’re cutting them down, they can’t grow fast enough. Tropical deforestation is the 2nd biggest contributor to climate change.

Fast Forest Facts

  • 13 million hectares of forest have been converted for other uses or destroyed by natural causes. While I’m writing this, almost 3 hectares have been cleared.
  • Up to 28,000 species can go extinct in the next quarter century due to deforestation.
  • By the year 2030, we might only have 10% of Rainforests left and it can all disappear in a hundred years.
  • 10% of the world’s forests are now protected areas. This is roughly the size of India.
  • Tropical Rainforests store more than 210 gigatons of carbon and deforestation is the cause of 15% of carbon emissions.
  • Cures for diseases have been found in plants and the raw materials come from our tropical rainforests.

 

THERE ARE SO MANY SWEETS SHOPS IN DELHI

http://www.justdial.com/Delhi/Sweet-Shops/ct-174791

http://www.justdial.com/Delhi/Grocery-Stores/ct-70444

 

Features[edit]

Picture of cutting lower part of the long jute fiber. The lower part is hard fiber, which is called jute cuttings in Bangladesh and India (commonly called jute butts or jute tops elsewhere). Jute cuttings are lower in quality, but have commercial value for the paper, carded yarn, and other fiber processing industries. Jute fibers are kept in bundles in the background in a warehouse in Bangladesh.

  • Jute fiber is 100% bio-degradable and recyclable and thus environmentally friendly.
  • Jute has low pesticide and fertilizer needs.
  • It is a natural fiber with golden and silky shine and hence called The Golden Fiber.
  • It is the cheapest vegetable fiber procured from the bast or skin of the plant’s stem.
  • It is the second most important vegetable fiber after cotton, in terms of usage, global consumption, production, and availability.
  • It has high tensile strength, low extensibility, and ensures better breathability of fabrics. Therefore, jute is very suitable in agricultural commodity bulk packaging.
  • It helps to make best quality industrial yarn, fabric, net, and sacks. It is one of the most versatile natural fibers that has been used in raw materials for packaging, textiles, non-textile, construction, and agricultural sectors. Bulking of yarn results in a reduced breaking tenacity and an increased breaking extensibility when blended as a ternary blend.
  • The best source of jute in the world is the Bengal Delta Plain in the Ganges Delta, most of which is occupied by Bangladesh.
  • Advantages of jute include good insulating and antistatic properties, as well as having low thermal conductivity and a moderate moisture regain. Other advantages of jute include acoustic insulating properties and manufacture with no skin irritations.
  • Jute has the ability to be blended with other fibers, both synthetic and natural, and accepts cellulosic dye classes such as natural, basic, vat, sulfur, reactive, andpigment dyes. As the demand for natural comfort fibers increases, the demand for jute and other natural fibers that can be blended with cotton will increase. To meet this demand, some manufactures in the natural fiber industry plan to modernize processing with the Rieter‘s Elitex system. The resulting jute/cotton yarns will produce fabrics with a reduced cost of wet processing treatments. Jute can also be blended with wool. By treating jute with caustic soda, crimp, softness, pliability, and appearance is improved, aiding in its ability to be spun with wool. Liquid ammonia has a similar effect on jute, as well as the added characteristic of improving flame resistance when treated with flameproofing agents.

MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES RESULT IN CURBING POLLUTION INDIA HAS TO FOLLOW JAPAN

DELHI HAS TO CHANGE ITS INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT POLICIES TO CURB POLLUTION FOR FUTURE

WHAT IS MAN MADE HAS TO BE IMPROVED THROUGH BETTER MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES.

ONE HAS TO ANALYSE THE MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES USED IN COMPANIES IN JAPAN.

BASED ON MANY POLICIES IMPLEMENTED IN COUNTRIES LIKE JAPAN ONE HAS TO ANALYSE THROUGH SWOT analysis 

A SWOT analysis (alternatively SWOT matrix) is a structured planning method used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats involved in a project or in a business venture.

NOW SEE HOW COMPANIES IN JAPAN WORK COMPARE IT WITH THE INDUSTRIAL AREAS IN DELHI

NOW MEASURES TAKEN TO CONTROL INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION WILL ONLY SHOW A MINOR DIFFERENCE.

BUT THE MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES USED IN COMPANIES IN JAPAN WILL AUTOMATICALLY REDUCE INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION .

SO WHATEVER MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES JAPAN HAS IMPLEMENTED IN FUTURE IT WILL SECURE ITS ECONOMY FROM POLLUTION .

Solar panels to be fitted in all Japan’s new homes and buildings by 2030

 

http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/noise-pollution/measures-to-control-industrial-pollution-in-delhi-india/19770/

Following measures have been taken to control industrial pollution in Delhi, the Capital of India.

1. All the three thermal power plants have been asked to comply with guidelines laid down for minimising air pollution.

2. All stone crushers have been closed down in Delhi and shifted to Pali in Rajasthan.

Industrial Pollution

Image Courtesy : postconflict.unep.ch/sudanreport/sudan_website/doccatcher/0116.JPG

3. All the hot mix plants have been closed down and shifted to other states.

4. As per the directions of Hon’ble Supreme Court, 168 hazardous industries have been closed down in Delhi.

It is heartening to note that Delhi’s air has become cleaner as a result of the above mentioned measures. Central Pollution Control Board discovered that pollution levels had gone down by upto 73 per cent since 1996 (taken as the base level as pollution levels were the highest). According to the study, the drop in sulphur, lead and benzene content in the air has been high.

Hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide levels had gone down by around 83 and 75 per cent respectively since the base year. The highest reduction had been in lead content which had gone down by 91 per cent. The reason for this had been changeover to unleaded petrol.

Also, use of the low benzene variety has brought down the benzene content by 80 per cent. The conversion of the city’s transport fleet from diesel to CNG has resulted in the reduction of sulphur content by 90 per cent.

Closings shifting of polluting industries and use of washed coal in thermal power plants have also played their part. The only worrying aspect was the increase in SPM (Suspended Particulate Matter) levels. Though carbon monoxide levels had also gone down, they were still above the permissible limits. Table 9.13 depicts the improvement of air quality of Delhi in 2003 as compared to 1996.

TABLE 9.13 Levels of Air Pollutants in Ambient Air of Delhi (µg/m3):

Pollutant 1996 2003
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) 24 10
Nitrogen Oxide (NO2 ) 47 102
Carbon Monoxide (CO) 5587 2500
Lead 213 40
SPM 426 440
RSPM 244 220

According to a study conducted by a Boston- based institute, Delhi is still one of the most polluted cities of Asia though the pollution levels have fallen in the recent years. The worrying factor is that while sulphur dioxide and nitrogen levels are lower than many other cities of Asia, the total suspended particulate (TSP) in the air still remains high. According to Daniel S. Greenbaum, president of Health Effects Institute, “if we compare Delhi with other Asian cities which have similar economic activity, the pollution levels in the capital are higher. It is mainly because regulation in Delhi is less than these cities.” Table 9.14 shows that the total suspended particulate (TSP) in Delhi is the highest among all major cities of Asia.

TABLE 9.14 Level of Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) in Major Cities of Asia:


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City (Country) Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) in µgm/n3
Delhi (India) 340
Chongquing (China) 250
Jakarta (Indonesia) 250
Kolkata (India) 230
Mumbai (India) 220
Shanghai (China) 170
Manila (Philippines) 150
Tokyo (Japan) 40
Singapore 30

 

http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/noise-pollution/measures-to-control-industrial-pollution-in-delhi-india/19770/

QUALITY ASSURANCE AND RELIABILITY
IN THE JAPANESE ELECTRONICS INDUSTRY

http://www.process-improvement-japan.com/quality-improvement-process.html

HISTORY OF JAPAN’S QUALITY MOVEMENT

The quality movement in Japan began in 1946 with the U.S. Occupation Force’s mission to revive and restructure Japan’s communications equipment industry. General Douglas MacArthur was committed to public education through radio. Homer Sarasohn was recruited to spearhead the effort by repairing and installing equipment, making materials and parts available, restarting factories, establishing the equipment test laboratory (ETL), and setting rigid quality standards for products (Tsurumi 1990). Sarasohn recommended individuals for company presidencies, like Koji Kobayashi of NEC, and he established education for Japan’s top executives in the management of quality. Furthermore, upon Sarasohn’s return to the United States, he recommended W. Edwards Deming to provide a seminar in Japan on statistical quality control (SQC).

Deming’s 1950 lecture notes provided the basis for a 30-day seminar sponsored by the Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers (JUSE) and provided the criteria for Japan’s famed Deming Prize. The first Deming Prize was given to Koji Kobayashi in 1952. Within a decade, JUSE had trained nearly 20,000 engineers in SQC methods. Today Japan gives high rating to companies that win the Deming prize; they number about ten large companies per year. Deming’s work has impacted industries such as those for radios and parts, transistors, cameras, binoculars, and sewing machines. In 1960, Deming was recognized for his contribution to Japan’s reindustrialization when the Prime Minister awarded him the Second Order of the Sacred Treasure.

In 1954, Dr. Joseph M. Juran of the United States raised the level of quality management from the factory to the total organization. He stressed the importance of systems thinking that begins with product designs, prototype testing, proper equipment operations, and accurate process feedback. Juran’s seminar also became a part of JUSE’s educational programs. Juran provided the move from SQC to TQC (total quality control) in Japan. This included company-wide activities and education in quality control (QC), QC circles and audits, and promotion of quality management principles. By 1968, Kaoru Ishikawa, one of the fathers of TQC in Japan, had outlined the elements of TQC management:

  • quality comes first, not short-term profits
  • the customer comes first, not the producer
  • customers are the next process with no organizational barriers
  • decisions are based on facts and data
  • management is participatory and respectful of all employees
  • management is driven by cross-functional committees covering product planning, product design, production planning, purchasing, manufacturing, sales, and distribution (Ishikawa 1985)

By 1991, JUSE had registered over 331,000 quality circles with over 2.5 million participants in its activities. Today, JUSE continues to provide over 200 courses per year, including five executive management courses, ten management courses, and a full range of technical training programs.

One of the innovative TQC methodologies developed in Japan is referred to as the “Ishikawa” or “cause-and-effect” diagram. After collecting statistical data, Ishikawa found that dispersion came from four common causes, as shown in Figure 6.1.


Figure 6.1. Cause-and-effect diagram (Ishikawa 1982, 13).

Materials often differ when sources of supply or size requirements vary. Equipment or machines also function differently depending on variations in their own parts, and they operate optimally for only part of the time. Processes or work methods have even greater variations. Finally, measurement also varies. All of these variations affect a product’s quality. Ishikawa’s diagram has lead Japanese firms to focus quality control attention on the improvement of materials, equipment, and processes.

JTEC panelists observed statistical process control (SPC) charts, often with goal lines extending into 1995, in a few of the factories they visited in 1993. For example, at Ibiden, process control was apparent in its laminated process board manufacture, where there was extensive use of drawings and descriptions of the processes necessary to do the job. Companies that were competing for the Deming Prize made extensive use of such charts, and companies that had received ISO 9000 certification also posted the process information required for each machine. However, the panel was surprised at the relatively limited use of SPC charts within the factories visited. The Japanese believe that the greatest benefit occurs when defect detection is implemented within the manufacturing sequence, thus minimizing the time required for detection, maximizing return on investment, and indirectly improving product reliability.

ISO 9000 Standards Certification

The concept of certification and standards, however, breaks down when global competitiveness is at stake. Most recently, ISO 9000 certification has become a requirement for exports to Europe, and Japan has been forced to obtain ISO certification, not because it is a quality issue, but because it is a way of increasing market share. The Japanese companies provide some of the highest-quality products, typically using company product standards (best commercial practices) rather than external standards like QML or any U.S. military standards.

The Japan Quality Association (JQA) is responsible for ISO certification. It was established in 1958 as the Japan Management Institute (JMI) under Japan’s Ministry of International Trade and Industry for the purpose of export inspection. In 1960, JMI moved from inspection to process certification, and in October 1993, JMI was renamed JQA to more aptly identify its mission. It has provided ISO 9000 certification in Japan since 1990 after receiving training from the British Standards Institution’s (BSI) quality assurance division, and it has memoranda of understanding with both BSI and Underwriters Laboratory (UL) in the United States for reciprocal certification acceptance.

By October of 1993, JQA had ISO-certified 300 firms in Japan, about 80% of which were electronics firms; the rest were chemical firms. JQA expected to have about 540 companies certified by the end of 1994. It was already booked through 1994, and there was a backlog of over a hundred companies waiting for certification. Most firms seeking certification were electronics firms that depended on exports to Europe. At the time of the JTEC visit, JQA was limited to about thirty assessments per month. It typically took companies one year to eighteen months to gain certification; most had little difficulty in obtaining ISO certification. In addition to JQA certification, there were an equal number of firms obtaining ISO certification from non-Japanese auditors.

When the JTEC panel visited Japan, Fujitsu, NEC, and Hitachi had the largest number of certified factories. Yamagata Fujitsu became ISO 9002-certified in February 1993 and was applying for ISO 9001 certification for early 1994. Fujitsu had over ten certified factories by the end of 1993. Most of the factories visited by the panel had either received ISO certification or were in the process of certification.

What is the historical background to Japan`s quality improvement process?

A. When Japan started its rapid industrialization phase post World War Two, there was a lack of effective management skills. Japan learned from overseas how to control management. They imported Statistical Quality Control (SQC) from the United States.

Statistical Quality Control began in the 1930`s with the industrial use of control charts. In order to meet wartime conditions, the production systems of the times needed to be revolutionized. By implementing SQC, the United States (and Britain) were able to produce supplies at lower cost and in large quantity. This was the origins of Statistical Quality Management and Japan`s quality improvement process journey. Dr. Deming is recognized for introducing quality control to Japan.

The SQC system was implemented in Japan and proved effective. However, after awhile, it was evident that this was not enough. It was realized that Statistical quality control had to be shared and practiced company wide in order for companies to meet their full production potential – from the top to the factory workers with total participation (full employee engagement).